black scholes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 402 ◽  
pp. 113790
Rui M.P. Almeida ◽  
Teófilo D. Chihaluca ◽  
José C.M. Duque

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Mohammad Mehdizadeh Khalsaraei ◽  
Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi ◽  
Ali Shokri ◽  
Higinio Ramos ◽  
Pari Khakzad

An implicit finite difference scheme for the numerical solution of a generalized Black–Scholes equation is presented. The method is based on the nonstandard finite difference technique. The positivity property is discussed and it is shown that the proposed method is consistent, stable and also the order of the scheme respect to the space variable is two. As the Black–Scholes model relies on symmetry of distribution and ignores the skewness of the distribution of the asset, the proposed method will be more appropriate for solving such symmetric models. In order to illustrate the efficiency of the new method, we applied it on some test examples. The obtained results confirm the theoretical behavior regarding the order of convergence. Furthermore, the numerical results are in good agreement with the exact solution and are more accurate than other existing results in the literature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Rainer Baule ◽  
Philip Rosenthal

Hedging down-and-out puts (and up-and-out calls), where the maximum payoff is reached just before a barrier is hit that would render the claim worthless afterwards, is challenging. All hedging methods potentially lead to large errors when the underlying is already close to the barrier and the hedge portfolio can only be adjusted in discrete time intervals. In this paper, we analyze this hedging situation, especially the case of overnight trading gaps. We show how a position in a short-term vanilla call option can be used for efficient hedging. Using a mean-variance hedging approach, we calculate optimal hedge ratios for both the underlying and call options as hedge instruments. We derive semi-analytical formulas for optimal hedge ratios in a Black–Scholes setting for continuous trading (as a benchmark) and in the case of trading gaps. For more complex models, we show in a numerical study that the semi-analytical formulas can be used as a sufficient approximation, even when stochastic volatility and jumps are present.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nikolai Nowaczyk ◽  
Jörg Kienitz ◽  
Sarp Kaya Acar ◽  
Qian Liang

AbstractDeep learning is a powerful tool, which is becoming increasingly popular in financial modeling. However, model validation requirements such as SR 11-7 pose a significant obstacle to the deployment of neural networks in a bank’s production system. Their typically high number of (hyper-)parameters poses a particular challenge to model selection, benchmarking and documentation. We present a simple grid based method together with an open source implementation and show how this pragmatically satisfies model validation requirements. We illustrate the method by learning the option pricing formula in the Black–Scholes and the Heston model.

Vestnik NSUEM ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 80-92
M. S. Kaz ◽  
E. A. Akerman

The relevance of the study is due to the active implementation of IT technologies in various aspects of companies, which gives special importance to the development of a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of projects in a highly uncertain environment. The paper presents the methodology and assesses the effectiveness of IT projects using binomial «decision tree» model and iterative risk assessment metamodel «Lean Canvas». The comparative assessment of IT project efficiency using discounted cash flow method, binomial «decision tree» model and Black–Scholes model was carried out. The results have shown the advantage of option-based approach to the evaluation of IT project efficiency in comparison with the traditional DCF method, which allows to build flexibility in the planning and management of the project, assess its potential and consider the uncertainties as additional opportunities for profit.

Diana Purwandari

Stock trading has a risk that can be said to be quite large due to fluctuations in stock prices. In stock trading, one alternative to reduce the amount of risk is options. The focus of this research is on European options which are financial contracts by giving the holder the right, not the obligation, to sell or buy the principal asset from the writer when it expires at a predetermined price. The Black-Scholes model is an option pricing model commonly used in the financial sector. This study aims to determine the effect of dividend distribution through the Black-Scholes model on stock prices. The effect of dividend distribution through the Black-Scholes model on stock prices results in the stock price immediately after the dividend distribution being lower than the stock price shortly before the dividend distribution

Teófilo Domingos Chihaluca

A numerical algorithm for solving a generalized Black-Scholes partial differential equation, which arises in European option pricing considering transaction costs is developed. The Crank-Nicolson method is used to discretize in the temporal direction and the Hermite cubic interpolation method to discretize in the spatial direction. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are tested numerically, and the results confirm the theoretical behaviour of the solutions, which is also found to be in good agreement with the exact solution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Sangkwon Kim ◽  
Chaeyoung Lee ◽  
Wonjin Lee ◽  
Soobin Kwak ◽  
Darae Jeong ◽  

In this study, we present an accurate and efficient nonuniform finite difference method for the three-dimensional (3D) time-fractional Black–Scholes (BS) equation. The operator splitting scheme is used to efficiently solve the 3D time-fractional BS equation. We use a nonuniform grid for pricing 3D options. We compute the three-asset cash-or-nothing European call option and investigate the effects of the fractional-order α in the time-fractional BS model. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and fastness of the proposed scheme.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Maciej Wysocki ◽  
Robert Ślepaczuk

In this paper, the performance of artificial neural networks in option pricing was analyzed and compared with the results obtained from the Black–Scholes–Merton model, based on the historical volatility. The results were compared based on various error metrics calculated separately between three moneyness ratios. The market data-driven approach was taken to train and test the neural network on the real-world options data from 2009 to 2019, quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The artificial neural network did not provide more accurate option prices, even though its hyperparameters were properly tuned. The Black–Scholes–Merton model turned out to be more precise and robust to various market conditions. In addition, the bias of the forecasts obtained from the neural network differed significantly between moneyness states. This study provides an initial insight into the application of deep learning methods to pricing options in emerging markets with low liquidity and high volatility.

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