Many countries now allow the consumption of cannabis or cannabinoids for medical purposes with varying approaches concerning products allowed and the regulatory frameworks prevailing their endowment. On 18 February 2019 Thailand passed legislation allowing the use of cannabis for medical purposes. This study aimed to examine patterns and purposes for consumption of medical cannabis, and consumers’ perceptions and opinions towards benefits and harms of cannabis and related policies in 2019–2020.
A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted in four sites across Thailand. Participants were 485 adults aged 18 years and over, living in the study region, who had used cannabis for medical purposes within the past 12 months. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were used to collect data on (1) demographic characteristics, (2) pattern of consumption, (3) source of information and perception of benefits and harms of medical cannabis, and (4) opinion towards cannabis policies. Data were analyzed using RDS Analyst and presented as percentage and mean with 95% confidence interval (CI).
Most participants (84.7%, 95% CI [78.9–90.5]) used an oral form of crude oil extract while 9.2% (95% CI [4.1–14.2]) used the raw form. The most common uses were for treatment of cancers (23.3%, 95% CI [16.1–30.4]), neuropsychiatric symptoms (22.8%, 95% CI [17.5–28.0]), and musculoskeletal pains (21.6%, 95% CI [16.7–26.6]). Illegal sources such as underground traders (54.5%, 95% CI [40.8–68.3]), friends and relatives (12.2%, 95% CI [6.2–18.3]), not-for-profit provider groups (5.2%, 95% CI [0.5–10.9]), and clandestine growers or producers (2.9%, 95% CI [0.6–5.3]) were the main suppliers. Most (>80%) perceived cannabis could treat cancers, chronic pains, insomnia, Parkinson’s disease and generalized anxiety disorder. Less than half perceived that cannabis could cause adverse conditions e.g., palpitation, panic, memory impairment and schizophrenic-like psychosis. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the policies regarding permission to use cannabis for medical purposes (95.1%, 95% CI [92.0–98.2]), for the legal sale of medical cannabis products (95.9%, 95% CI [93.7–98.2]), and for people to grow cannabis for medical use (94.2%, 95% CI [91.8–96.5]). However, only two-thirds agreed with policies concerning the sales of cannabis (65.3%, 95% CI [56.9–73.7]) and home-grown cannabis for recreational purposes (61.3%, 95% CI [52.7–69.9]).
Our study reports the experiences of consumers of medical cannabis in the first year after its legalization in Thailand. Consumers reported various patterns and indications of consumption that were not supported by scientific evidence, but had positive perception of the results of consumption. These findings highlight ongoing policy challenges for Thailand and can be a lesson to be learned for other countries in the region.
The spread of the idea of the circular economy has already appeared among service providers; therefore, a growing interest in tourism can be observed. Due to its seasonal nature and because tourism is primarily operated by for-profit actors, whose aspirations focus on economic benefits, tourism in in recent years has developed in the direction of mass tourism. By overriding the approach of sustainability, all this strengthens the damaging effects of tourism on nature and society. The aim of the study is to understand and interpret the circular economy model in the tourism industry; explore the relevant literature through a review analysis and based on the synthesis of principles found in the literature, show directions of how the circular economy can be interpreted in tourism. The main contribution of the study is that besides the contextual understanding of circular tourism, it aims to provide practical issues and examples about circular solutions. The study also highlights that in addition to physical parameters, some solutions could be achieved only by reorganizing processes and practices. Furthermore, based on industrial symbiosis, tourism can support sustainable development at the individual and the regional level.
Repurposing of authorised medicines has been under discussion for a long time. Drug repurposing is the process of identifying a new use for an existing medicine in an indication outside the scope of the original approved indication. Indeed, the COVID-19 health crisis has brought the concept to the frontline by proving the usefulness of this practise in favour of patients for an early access to treatment. Under the umbrella of the Pharmaceutical Committee and as a result of the discussions at the European Commission Expert Group on Safe and Timely Access to Medicines for Patients (STAMP) a virtual Repurposing Observatory Group (RepOG) was set up in 2019 to define and test the practical aspects of a pilot project thought to provide support to “not-for-profit” stakeholders generating or gathering data for a new therapeutic use for an authorised medicine. The group's initial plan was impacted by the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the launch of the pilot needed to be postponed. This article describes the progress and the activities conducted by the group during this past and yet extraordinary 2020–2021 to keep the project alive and explores on the background of this topic together with the obvious opportunities this health crisis has brought up in terms of repurposing of medicines.
An imbalanced distribution of income and welfare characterizes a developing or transitional economy such as China’s. Even after forty years of reform and rapid economic growth, there is still considerable disparity in wellbeing across different institutional settings in China. Major inequalities exist between rural and urban areas, public and for profit sectors, and state-owned and private enterprises. This paper presents the descriptive differences in individual wellbeing across these kinds of institutional settings from objective and subjective perspectives, enabled by the five waves of the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS; the years of 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015). The results show that: (1) people in urban China enjoy more objective wellbeing than people in rural China, but less subjective wellbeing; (2) people who work for the public sector enjoy more objective and subjective wellbeing than those for the for profit sector; (3) people who work for the state owned enterprises enjoy more objective wellbeing than those for the for profit sector, but subjective happiness is not significantly different. Furthermore, people’s perception of subjective wellbeing not only relies upon substantive objective wellbeing, but also an affiliation with a certain type of institution.
Aim. To investigate the contribution of the Hellenic Red Cross to the Greek Society during the first five and more severe years (2010-2014) of the profound financial crisis in Greece. Material And Methods. We retrospectively investigated the actions and contribution of the Hellenic Red Cross for the aforementioned five-year period. The research material was accumulated by research in the Internet, the archives, and the official webpage of the Hellenic Red Cross (Google, official web page of the ICRC and IFRC), from the Hellenic Ministry of Health and the Hellenic Ministry of Immigration and Asylum. Results. A huge amount of over 247 actions were detected for the research period. More than 17,708 people were examined and treated from the specialized medical personnel of the Hellenic Red Cross and 3,266 individuals were trained in basic first aid and hygiene. The final amount of 297,757€ were donated and 5,880 welfare packages were delivered. Conclusions. The current study has concluded that the contribution of the Hellenic Red Cross to the Greek society during the most severe phase of the recent financial crisis was outstanding and consists an example for any other Non-Governmental, Non for Profit Organizations in the future.
This study aims to determine the effect of asset quality variables (Non-Performing Financing), Profit and Loss Sharing (profit-loss sharing investment and profit-sharing investment account), capital adequacy ratio, bank size, return on assets, and gross domestic product on Islamic banking liquidity in Indonesia. The analysis was conducted using a sample of 7 Islamic commercial banks from the period March 2015 to December 2019. This study uses 2 multiple regression models of panel data with the results showing that Non-Performing Financing, profit-loss sharing investment, bank size, gross domestic product affect the liquidity of Islamic banks. , then for-profit sharing investment account, capital adequacy ratio, return on assets, does not affect the liquidity of Islamic banks.
Prospective registration aims to reduce bias in the conduct and reporting of research and to increase transparency. In addition, prospective registration of systematic reviews is argued to help preventing unintended duplication, thereby reducing research waste. PROSPERO was launched in 2011 as the first prospective register for systematic reviews. While it has long been the only option to prospectively register systematic reviews, recently there have been new developments. Our aim was to identify and characterize current options to prospectively register a systematic review to assist review authors in choosing a suitable register.
To identify systematic review registers, we independently performed internet searches in January 2021 using keywords related to systematic reviews and prospective registration. “Registration” was defined as the process of entering information about a planned systematic review into a database before starting the systematic review process. We collected data on the characteristics of the identified registries and contacted the responsible party of each register for verification of the data related to their registry.
Overall, we identified five options to prospectively register a systematic review: PROSPERO, the Registry of Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses in Research Registry, and INPLASY, which are specific to systematic reviews, and the Open Science Framework Registries and protocols.io, which represent generic registers open to any study type. Detailed information on each register is presented in tables in the main text. Regarding the systematic-review-specific registries, authors have to trade-off between the costs of registration and the processing time of their registration record. All registers provide an option to search for systematic reviews already registered in the register. However, it is unclear how useful these search functions are.
Authors can prospectively register their systematic review in five registries, which come with different characteristics and features. The research community should discuss fair and sustainable financing models for registers that are not operated by for-profit organizations.