Labyrinth weirs are commonly used to increase the capacity of existing spillways and provide more efficient spillways for new dams due to their high specific discharge capacity compared to the linear weir. In the present study, experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to improve the rectangular labyrinth weir performance. In this context, four configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the entrance shape and alveoli width on its discharge capacity. The experimental models, three models of rectangular labyrinth weir with rounded entrance and one with flat entrance, were tested in rectangular channel conditions for inlet width to outlet width ratios (a/b) equal to 0.67, 1 and 1.5. The results indicate that the rounded entrance increases the weir efficiency by up to 5%. A ratio a/b equal to 1.5 leads to an 8 and 18% increase in the discharge capacity compared to a/b ratio equal to 1 and 0.67, respectively. In addition, a numerical simulation was conducted using the opensource CFD OpenFOAM to analyze and provide more information about the flow behavior over the tested models. A comparison between the experimental and numerical discharge coefficient was performed and good agreement was found (Mean Absolute Relative Error of 4–6%).
Nowadays, hemoglobin monitoring is essential during surgeries, blood donations, and dialysis. Which are normally done using invasive methods. To monitor hemoglobin, a non-invasive hemoglobin meter was developed with five fixed light-emitting diode (LED) wavelengths at 670 nm, 770 nm, 810 nm, 850 nm, 950 nm and controlled using an Arduino Uno embedded development board. A photodetector with an on-chip trans-impedance amplifier was utilized to acquire the transmitted signal through the finger using the photoplethysmography (PPG) principle. Before the standardization of LED power, we had tested the designed system on fifteen subjects for the five wavelengths and estimated the hemoglobin with an accuracy of 96.51% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.57 gm/dL. To further improve the accuracy, the LED power was standardized and the PPG signal was reacquired on the same subjects. With this, the accuracy improved to 98.29% and also reduced the RMSE to 0.36 gm/dL. The designed system with LED power standardization showed a good agreement with pathology results with the coefficient of determination R<sup>2</sup>=0.981. Also, Bland–Altman analysis was used to evaluate the designed system and it showed good agreement between the two measurements.
This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis of damage evolution in AA2011 aluminum alloy wires drawn under different scenarios. To this end, load-unload tensile tests were firstly carried out in order to characterize the degradation of the mechanical response in every cycle where the experimental results show a bilinear damage relationship in terms of the effective plastic strain. Therefore, a modification of the classical Lemaitre model is proposed in this work in order to reproduce bilinear paths of damage with the addition of only two parameters that can be directly obtained from the material characterization. Then, the damage predictive capability of this new experimental-based model is assessed in numerical simulations of the drawing process in one and two passes (considering for this last case the sequential and tandem configurations) where the computed predictions are compared with the corresponding experimental data showing a good agreement between them.
This paper investigates the electromagnetic torque by considering back electromagnetic force (back-EMF) trapezoidal degrees of ironless brushless DC (BLDC) motors through the two-dimensional finite element method (2-D FEM). First, the change percentages of the electromagnetic torque with back-EMF trapezoidal degrees, relative to those of PMs without segments, are investigated on the premise of the same back-EMF amplitude. It is found that both PM symmetrically and asymmetrically segmented types influence back-EMF trapezoidal degrees. Second, the corresponding electromagnetic torque, relative to that of PMs without segments, is studied in detail. The results show that the electromagnetic torque can be improved or deteriorated depending on whether the back-EMF trapezoidal degree is lower or higher than that of PMs without segments. Additionally, the electromagnetic torque can easily be improved by increasing the number of PMs’ symmetrical segments. In addition, the electromagnetic torque in PMs with asymmetrical segments is always higher than that of PMs without segments. Finally, two ironless PM BLDC motors with PMs symmetrically segmented into three segments and without segments are manufactured and tested. The experimental results show good agreement with those of the 2-D FEM method. This approach provides significant guidelines to electromagnetic torque improvement without much increase in manufacturing costs and process complexity.
A comparison was made of two eddy dissipation rate (EDR) estimates based on flight data recorded by commercial flights. The EDR estimates from real-time data using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Algorithm were compared with the EDR estimates derived using the Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) Algorithm using quick assess recorder (QAR) data. The estimates were found to be in good agreement in general, although subtle differences were found. The agreement between the two algorithms was better when the flight was above 10,000 ft. The EDR estimates from the two algorithms were also compared with the vertical acceleration experienced by the aircraft. Both EDR estimates showed good correlation with the vertical acceleration and would effectively capture the turbulence subjectively experienced by pilots.
Describing properties of a strongly interacting quantum many-body system poses a serious challenge both for theory and experiment. In this work, we study excitations of one-dimensional repulsive Bose gas for arbitrary interaction strength using a hydrodynamic approach.
We use linearization to study particle (type-I) excitations and numerical minimization to study hole (type-II) excitations.
We observe a good agreement between our approach and exact solutions of the Lieb-Liniger model for the particle modes and discrepancies for the hole modes.
Therefore, the hydrodynamical equations find to be useful for long-wave structures like phonons and of a limited range of applicability for short-wave ones like narrow solitons. We discuss potential further applications of the method.
The results of Kermack–McKendrick SIR model are planned to be reproduced by cellular automata (CA) lattice model. The CA algorithms are proposed to study the model of an epidemic, systematically. The basic goal is to capture the effects of spreading of infection over a scale of length. This CA model can provide the rate of growth of the infection over the space which was lacking in the mean-field like susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model. The motion of the circular front of an infected cluster shows a linear behavior in time. The correlation of a particular site to be infected with respect to the central site is also studied. The outcomes of the CA model are in good agreement with those obtained from SIR model. The results of vaccination have been also incorporated in the CA algorithm with a satisfactory degree of success. The advantage of the present model is that it can shed a considerable amount of light on the physical properties of the spread of a typical epidemic in a simple, yet robust way.
Fiber-reinforced rubber composites with integrated shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator wires present a promising approach for the creation of soft and highly elastic structures with adaptive functionalities for usage in aerospace, robotic, or biomedical applications. In this work, the flat-knitting technology is used to develop glass-fiber-reinforced fabrics with tailored properties designed for active bending deformations. During the knitting process, the SMA wires are integrated into the textile and positioned with respect to their actuation task. Then, the fabrics are infiltrated with liquid silicone, thus creating actively deformable composites. For dimensioning such structures, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions of all components is required. Therefore, a simulation model is developed that captures the properties of the rubber matrix, fiber reinforcement, and the SMA actuators and that is capable of simulating the active bending deformations of the specimens. After model calibration with experimental four-point-bending data, the SMA-driven bending deformation is simulated. The model is validated with activation experiments of the actively deformable specimens. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental tests, thus enabling further investigations into the deformation mechanisms of actively deformable fiber-reinforced rubbers.
The static problem of a layered isotropic elastic body is a very useful research subject in relation to the analysis and design of foundation works. Due to the complexity of the problem, there is no analytical solution to the problem so far. This study provides an efficient analytical approach to accurately calculate the displacement and stress fields of the soil. The constraints of bedrock on soil, different soil layer thickness and the shear stress of the foundation on soil were all taken into account in the analysis. In this study, each layer is regarded as an isotropic elastomer with infinite width, and the layers are in complete contact. By using conformal mapping, each layer is mapped to a unit circle, and the two complex potential functions are expanded into Taylor series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are obtained by satisfying boundary conditions and continuity conditions. The boundary and continuity conditions were verified in this paper. As a validation step, we compared the analytical results for the settlement with the results of the ANSYS numerical simulations and found good agreement. Parametric analyses were also carried out to investigate the influence of different distribution forms of base pressure on surface settlement, and the effects of layered properties on the surface settlement and stress field.
A first cavitation modeling with thermal effects for oil/refrigerant solutions lubricated ElastoHydroDynamic (EHD) point contacts is reported in this work. The solubility of the oil/refrigerant system is introduced into the Generalized Reynolds equation coupled with the elasticity equation and the energy conservation equation. The numerical results show a very good agreement with the published experimental results concerning film thickness prediction. Moreover, the present model describes the cavitation region on a physical basis. A discussion with other cavitation models from the literature is proposed. It puts into light the necessity of taking into account the solubility of the refrigerant into oil for such problems. Compared to pure oil, oil/refrigerant solutions can potentially reduce the amount of liquid oil for the next contact due to its higher cavitation intensity.