network topology
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Author(s):  
Mengmeng Ge ◽  
Jin-Hee Cho ◽  
Dongseong Kim ◽  
Gaurav Dixit ◽  
Ing-Ray Chen

Resource constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices are highly likely to be compromised by attackers, because strong security protections may not be suitable to be deployed. This requires an alternative approach to protect vulnerable components in IoT networks. In this article, we propose an integrated defense technique to achieve intrusion prevention by leveraging cyberdeception (i.e., a decoy system) and moving target defense (i.e., network topology shuffling). We evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed technique analytically based on a graphical security model in a software-defined networking (SDN)-based IoT network. We develop four strategies (i.e., fixed/random and adaptive/hybrid) to address “when” to perform network topology shuffling and three strategies (i.e., genetic algorithm/decoy attack path-based optimization/random) to address “how” to perform network topology shuffling on a decoy-populated IoT network, and we analyze which strategy can best achieve a system goal, such as prolonging the system lifetime, maximizing deception effectiveness, maximizing service availability, or minimizing defense cost. We demonstrated that a software-defined IoT network running our intrusion prevention technique at the optimal parameter setting prolongs system lifetime, increases attack complexity of compromising critical nodes, and maintains superior service availability compared with a counterpart IoT network without running our intrusion prevention technique. Further, when given a single goal or a multi-objective goal (e.g., maximizing the system lifetime and service availability while minimizing the defense cost) as input, the best combination of “when” and “how” strategies is identified for executing our proposed technique under which the specified goal can be best achieved.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenbo Song ◽  
Wei Sheng ◽  
Dong Li ◽  
Chong Wu ◽  
Jun Ma

The network topology of complex networks evolves dynamically with time. How to model the internal mechanism driving the dynamic change of network structure is the key problem in the field of complex networks. The models represented by WS, NW, BA usually assume that the evolution of network structure is driven by nodes’ passive behaviors based on some restrictive rules. However, in fact, network nodes are intelligent individuals, which actively update their relations based on experience and environment. To overcome this limitation, we attempt to construct a network model based on deep reinforcement learning, named as NMDRL. In the new model, each node in complex networks is regarded as an intelligent agent, which reacts with the agents around it for refreshing its relationships at every moment. Extensive experiments show that our model not only can generate networks owing the properties of scale-free and small-world, but also reveal how community structures emerge and evolve. The proposed NMDRL model is helpful to study propagation, game, and cooperation behaviors in networks.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Narae Yoon ◽  
Youngmin Huh ◽  
Hyekyoung Lee ◽  
Johanna Inhyang Kim ◽  
Jung Lee ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundUnderconnectivity in the resting brain is not consistent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is known that the default mode network is mainly decreased in childhood ASD. This study investigated the brain network topology as the changes in the connection strength and network efficiency in childhood ASD, including the early developmental stages.MethodsIn this study, 31 ASD children aged 2–11 years were compared with 31 age and sex-matched children showing typical development. We explored the functional connectivity based on graph filtration by assessing the single linkage distance and global and nodal efficiencies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between functional connectivity and clinical scores was also analyzed.ResultsUnderconnectivities within the posterior default mode network subregions and between the inferior parietal lobule and inferior frontal/superior temporal regions were observed in the ASD group. These areas significantly correlated with the clinical phenotypes. The global, local, and nodal network efficiencies were lower in children with ASD than in those with typical development. In the preschool-age children (2–6 years) with ASD, the anterior-posterior connectivity of the default mode network and cerebellar connectivity were reduced.ConclusionsThe observed topological reorganization, underconnectivity, and disrupted efficiency in the default mode network subregions and social function-related regions could be significant biomarkers of childhood ASD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Zhixue Wang

In this paper, the reliability of data transmission in social networks is thoroughly studied and analyzed using wireless sensor network topology technology. This paper, based on the introduction of sensor network reliability analysis-related technology, combined with the characteristics, and needs of the sensor network itself, focuses on the study of the reliability analysis of the sensor network under the state of perturbation scheme. Based on the idea of making full use of data changes to respond to the sensor state, this paper takes the actual monitoring data of the wireless sensor network as the research object, selects the temporal correlation and spatial correlation of the measured environmental data as the reliability index by extracting the features of the wireless sensor network data, and proposes the Evidential reasoning rule- (ER-) based wireless sensor network data reliability assessment model based on Evidential reasoning rule (ER) is proposed. The data are mined, analyzed, and quantified from the perspective of content popularity, and the interest indicators of nodes on data under content popularity are analyzed to derive stable interest quantification values. Combined with the network properties, i.e., node autoassembly community, we analyze the data dissemination characteristics of social networks in wireless sensor network topology environment and derive the upper and lower bounds of data transmission capacity under node interest-driven and its variation on network performance. Social relationships among nodes affected by social attributes are considered; in turn, the data forwarding behavior of nodes is modeled using data transmission probability and data reception probability; finally, the data forwarding process is analyzed and a closed expression for the average end-to-end transmission capacity is derived in turn.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ming Qi ◽  
Danyang Shi ◽  
Shaoyi Feng ◽  
Pei Wang ◽  
Amuji Bridget Nnenna

PurposeIn this paper, the authors use the balance sheet data to investigate the interconnectedness and risk contagion effects in China's banking sector. They firstly study the network structure and centrality of the interbank network. Then, they investigate how and to what extent the credit shock and liquidity shock can lead to the risk propagation in the banking network.Design/methodology/approachReferring to the theoretical framework by Haldane and May (2011), this paper uses the network topology theory to analyze the contagion mechanism of credit shock and liquidity shock. Centrality measures and log-log plot are used to evaluate the interconnectedness of China's banking network.FindingsThe network topology has shown clustering effects of large banks in China's financial network. If the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) is in distress, the credit shock has little impact on the Chinese banking sector. However, the liquidity shock has shown more substantial effects than that of the credit shock. The discount rate and the rollover ratio play significant roles in determining the contagion effects. If the credit shock and liquidity shock coincide, the contagion effects will be amplified.Research limitations/implicationsThe results of this paper reveal the network structure of China's interbank market and the resilience of banking system to the adverse shock. The findings are valuable for regulators to make policies and supervise the systemic important banks.Originality/valueThe balance sheet data of different types of banks are used to construct a bilateral exposure matrix. Based on the matrix, this paper investigates the knock-on effects of credit shock triggered by the debt default in the interbank market, the knock-on effects of liquidity effects, which is featured by “fire sale” of bank assets, and the contagion effects of combined shocks.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nikolai Nowaczyk ◽  
Jörg Kienitz ◽  
Sarp Kaya Acar ◽  
Qian Liang

AbstractDeep learning is a powerful tool, which is becoming increasingly popular in financial modeling. However, model validation requirements such as SR 11-7 pose a significant obstacle to the deployment of neural networks in a bank’s production system. Their typically high number of (hyper-)parameters poses a particular challenge to model selection, benchmarking and documentation. We present a simple grid based method together with an open source implementation and show how this pragmatically satisfies model validation requirements. We illustrate the method by learning the option pricing formula in the Black–Scholes and the Heston model.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
Mohamed Ikbal Nacer ◽  
Simant Prakoonwit

The blockchain is a registry shared among different participants intending to eliminate the need for a central authority to maintain information. The first proposal of this technology was to eliminate financial authorities in transactions of value. However, the application of the same technique for the transaction of information could facilitate trades and offer traceability and diamond tracking around the world. The consensus is at the core of the network because it orchestrates nodes to accept new information, but it operates over a data structure in an open network, consequently leading to many complex behaviours that introduce different vulnerabilities. This work aims to highlight the vulnerability within the blockchain network based on the different participant behaviours that dominate the shared registry. Moreover, different malicious behaviour can appear on the networking layer by taking advantage of the network topology.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Asymptomatic patients (AP) travel through neighborhoods in communities. The mobility dynamics of the AP makes it hard to tag them with specific interests. The lack of efficient monitoring systems can enable the AP to infect several vulnerable people in the communities. This article studied the monitoring of AP through their mobility and trajectory towards reducing the stress of socio-economic complications in the case of pandemics. Mobility and Trajectory based Technique for Monitoring Asymptomatic Patients (MTT-MAP) was established. The time-ordered spatial and temporal trajectory records of the AP were captured through their activities. A grid-based index data structure was designed based on network topology, graph theory and trajectory analysis to cater for the continuous monitoring of the AP over time. Also, concurrent object localisation and recognition, branch and bound, and multi-object instance strategies were adopted. The MTT-MAP has shown efficient when experimented with GeoLife dataset and can be integrated with state-of-the-art patients monitoring systems.


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