ethical issues
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2022 ◽  
Vol 141 ◽  
pp. 111-112
Charles Harvey ◽  
Nick Hajli ◽  
Michael R. Hyman

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 263
Melati Nungsari ◽  
Chuah Hui Yin ◽  
Nicole Fong ◽  
Veena Pillai

Background: Globally, vulnerable populations have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent responses, such as lockdown measures and mass vaccinations. Numerous ethical challenges have arisen at different levels, be it at the policy-making level or on the ground. For example, policymakers have to contain a highly contagious disease with high morbidity using scarce resources, while minimizing the medium- to long-term social and economic impacts induced by containment measures. This study explores the impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations in Malaysia by using an intersectional framework that accounts for overlapping forms of marginalization.   Methods: This study utilizes in-depth qualitative data obtained from 34 individuals and organizations to understand the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on vulnerable populations in Malaysia. We utilize four principles of ethics to guide our coding and interpretation of the data – namely beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and autonomy. We utilize a frequency analysis to roughly understand the types of ethical issues that emerged. Using hermeneutic content analysis (HCA), we then explore how the principles interact with each other. Results: Through the frequently analysis, we found that although beneficence was very prevalent in our dataset, so was a significant amount of harm – as perpetuated through injustice, the removal or lack of autonomy and maleficence. We also unearthed a worrying landscape of harm and deep systemic issues associated with a lack of support for vulnerable households – further exacerbated during the pandemic. Conclusions: Policy recommendations for aid organizations and society to mitigate these ethical problems are presented, such as long overdue institutional reforms and stronger ethical practices rooted in human rights principles, which government agencies and aid providers can then use in the provision of aid to vulnerable populations.

Reza Etemad-Sajadi ◽  
Antonin Soussan ◽  
Théo Schöpfer

AbstractThe goal of this research is to focus on the ethical issues linked to the interaction between humans and robots in a service delivery context. Through this user study, we want to see how ethics influence user’s intention to use a robot in a frontline service context. We want to observe the importance of each ethical attribute on user’s intention to use the robot in the future. To achieve this goal, we incorporated a video that showed Pepper, the robot, in action. Then respondents had to answer questions about their perception of robots based on the video. Based on a final sample of 341 respondents, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test our hypotheses. The results show that the most important ethical issue is the Replacement and its implications for labor. When we look at the impact of the ethical issues on the intention to use, we discovered that the variables impacting the most are Social cues, Trust and Safety.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Cornelius Holtorf ◽  
Annalisa Bolin

PurposeThis article explores the concept of “heritage futures”, the role of heritage in managing relations between present and future societies. It assesses how thinking strategically about the future changes, complicates and contextualises practices of heritage. What might an attention to the future bring to work in heritage, and simultaneously, what challenges—both practical and ethical—arise?Design/methodology/approachThis article takes the form of a conversation about the nature of heritage futures and how such a project may be implemented in both heritage practice and field research in heritage studies. The two authors are heritage scholars who integrate heritage futures questions into their research in different ways, and their conversation uncovers potentialities and difficulties in the heritage futures project.FindingsThe discussion covers the particular ethical issues that arise when the dimension of time is added to heritage research and practice, including questions of continuism, presentism and specificity. The conversation argues for the importance of considering the future in heritage studies and heritage practice and that this forms a key part of understanding how heritage may be part of building a sustainable present and future.Originality/valueThe future is an under-examined concept within heritage studies, even as heritage is often framed as something to be preserved “for future generations”. But what impact might it have on heritage practice to really consider what this means, beyond the platitude? This article suggests that heritage scholars and practitioners direct their attention to this often-neglected facet of heritage.

Kellyn Dailey Hall

Purpose: A hypothetical case is used to illustrate legal and ethical issues involving the decision to replace the traditional in-person service delivery model with telepractice in schools beyond the context of the initial COVID-19 health emergency. In this clinical focus article, the reader follows Maria, the lead speech-language pathologist (SLP) in the district, as she determines the feasibility of continuing telepractice in her district now that students and clinicians are returning to schools. First, she considers the support needed to implement this service delivery model within the school setting given the anticipated changes to the rules and regulations governing lawful and ethical provision of telepractice after the health emergency ends. Next, she decides if telepractice is warranted in the district by considering the rationales behind the requests. Faced with balancing school, student, and clinician needs, Maria uses an ethical decision-making model to determine if requests for telepractice, tied to health safety concerns and potentially influenced by implicit bias, reflect legal, ethical, and/or moral issues driven by fear or unconscious discriminatory motives. Conclusions: The health emergency gave SLPs working in schools the unique opportunity to experience the benefits and utility of telepractice. Following the return to schools, continuation of telepractice services will require support and training of SLPs. Many factors must be considered including equivalency of services, technology, and protection of privacy as they relate to the changes to the laws and regulations governing telepractice after the health emergency allowances end. Of primary importance is the selection of telepractice to address student needs, not to avoid specific schools because of their characteristics or location. An ethical decision-making model can be used as a framework to guide service delivery model decisions that balance the needs of the student, the clinician, and the district.

Azam Khorshidian ◽  
Alireza Parsapoor ◽  
Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki

Objectives: The basis of truth-telling is respecting the autonomy of patients and developing an ability to make informed decisions with valid consent. The purpose of this study was to ethically analyze the conflicts about truth-telling in dentistry. Materials and Methods: This case analysis focused on the issues of truth-telling in medicine and dentistry. The challenges encountered by dentists with respect to ethical issues related to truth-telling were discussed and analyzed by the research team. Results:  The literature review showed that the issue of truth-telling in dentistry has been addressed from three aspects: Truth-telling about other dentists’ medical errors, truth-telling about dangerous, refractory, or incurable diseases, and truth-telling to children or incompetent individuals for decision-making. Conclusion: When the duty of the dentist in truth-telling is conflicted with some other moral obligations, the conflict between the prima facie duties arises. The principle-based ethical theories provide a suitable conceptual framework for moral judgement in such conflicts. In cases of conflicts related to truth-telling, a balance should be maintained between principles and rules such as fidelity, respect for autonomy, maintaining trust in dentist-patient relation, and best interest of patients. The decision in truth-telling should be made individually for each patient based on the specific contextual conditions.

2022 ◽  
Angelica Chinecherem Uwaezuoke

Abstract Background: The outbreak of the novel SARS-COV-2 virus, created a paradigm shift in the practice of medicine, a speciality well known for its integration of clinical expertise and manual dexterity in the management of its patients. Telemedicine, a previously less conventional approach in developing countries, has now come to the forefront of patient care. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of telemedicine among doctors in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla in Enugu state.Methodology: A questionnaire-based survey was used to obtain relevant information among 149 doctors in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), including their knowledge and awareness of telemedicine, its relevance and impact on the clinical outcomes of patients as well as factors limiting its use. Data was analyzed and presented in tables, graphs and pie charts.Results: There were 149 doctors, who were mostly aged 15 – 30 years (63%). Most 146 (98%) have heard about telemedicine but only 100 (67.3%) have consulted using telemedicine. Doctors were more likely to employ telemedical consultation for follow-up and emergency scenarios but least likely to use telemedicine for first-time visits and the management of chronic diseases.Conclusion: There is a good knowledge of telemedicine among medical doctors in UNTH but ICT illiteracy, inadequate patient-doctor interaction, patients’ preference, lack of internet access, high cost of set-up and maintenance and ethical issues were some of the factors limiting its practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
John Kanazawa ◽  
Sara Gianella ◽  
Susanna Concha-Garcia ◽  
Jeff Taylor ◽  
Andy Kaytes ◽  

Abstract Background One of the next frontiers in HIV research is focused on finding a cure. A new priority includes people with HIV (PWH) with non-AIDS terminal illnesses who are willing to donate their bodies at the end-of-life (EOL) to advance the search towards an HIV cure. We endeavored to understand perceptions of this research and to identify ethical and practical considerations relevant to implementing it. Methods We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and 3 virtual focus groups among four types of key stakeholders in the United States (PWH, biomedical HIV cure researchers, HIV clinicians, and bioethicists) to obtain triangulated viewpoints because little was known about the ethics of this topic. Each group was queried as to ethical considerations, safeguards, and protections for conducting HIV cure-related research at the EOL to ensure this research remains acceptable. Results All four key stakeholder groups generally supported HIV cure-related research conducted at the EOL because of the history of altruism within the PWH community and the potential for substantial scientific knowledge to be gained. Our informants expressed that: (1) Strong stakeholder and community involvement are integral to the ethical and effective implementation, as well as the social acceptability of this research; (2) PWH approaching the EOL should not inherently be considered a vulnerable class and their autonomy must be respected when choosing to participate in HIV cure-related research at the EOL; (3) Greater diversity among study participants, as well as multi-disciplinary research teams, is necessitated by HIV cure-related research at the EOL; (4) The sensitive nature of this research warrants robust oversight to ensure a favorable risk/benefit balance and to minimize the possibility of therapeutic misconception or undue influence; and (5) Research protocols should remain flexible to accommodate participants’ comfort and needs at the EOL. Conclusion Because of the ethical issues presented by HIV cure-related research at the EOL, robust ethical safeguards are of utmost importance. The proposed ethical and practical considerations presented herein is a first step in determining the best way to maximize this research’s impact and social value. More much inquiry will need to be directed towards understanding context-specific and cultural considerations for implementing EOL HIV cure research in diverse settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Limbanazo Matandika ◽  
Kate Millar ◽  
Eric Umar ◽  
Edward Joy ◽  
Joseph Mfutso-Bengo

Abstract Background There have been notable investments in large multi-partner research programmes across the agriculture-nutrition-health (ANH) nexus. These studies often involve human participants and commonly require research ethics review. These ANH studies are complex and can raise ethical issues that need pre-field work, ethical oversight and also need an embedded process that can identify, characterise and manage ethical issues as the research work develops, as such more embedded and dynamic ethics processes are needed. This work builds on notions of ‘ethics in practice’ by developing an approach to facilitate ethical reflection within large research programmes. This study explores the application of a novel ‘real-time research ethics approach’ (RTREA) and how this can support ethical mindfulness. This involves embedding ethical analysis and decision-making within research implementation, with a continuous dialogue between participants and researchers. The aim is to improve ethical responsiveness and participant experience, which in turn may ethically support adherence and retention. In this case study, a bioethics team (BT) was embedded in a community-based randomised, controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi, titled the ‘Addressing Hidden Hunger with Agronomy’. To identify ethical issues, the researchers conducted ten focus group discussions, fourteen in-depth interviews with key informants, two workshops, observed two sensitisation and three activity meetings conducted by the trial team, and analysed fifteen reports from pre-trial to trial implementation. Results The RTREA facilitated the identification of social and ethical concerns and made researchers aware of participants’ ‘lived research experience’. To address concerns and experiences, the BT worked with researchers to facilitate conversation spaces where social and ethical issues were discussed. Conversation spaces were designed to create partnerships and promote participatory methods to capture trial participants’ (TPs) perspectives and experiences. Conclusions The use of RTREA showed the value of real-time and continuous engagement between TPs and researchers. These real-time processes could be embedded to complement traditional ethical guidance and expert opinions. A deeper engagement appeared to support greater operationalising of principles of inclusion, empowerment, and participant autonomy and supported researchers ‘ethical mindfulness’ which in turn may support instrumental outcomes of high recruitment, retention, and adherence levels.

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