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Jhean-Carla Echalar ◽  
Romina Cossio-Rodriguez ◽  
David Veliz ◽  
Fabricio Cardozo-Alarcon ◽  

Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans(Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with synthetic pesticides in Bolivia has become increasingly inefficient due to the development of resistance in the insects. In the Chaco region of Bolivia, guaraní populations have approached the problem by fumigating their houses with the smoke of native plants. Through interviews and field work with local guides, the main plant used by the guaraníes was collected and later identified as Capsicum baccatumL. var. baccatum(Solanaceae). In choice bioassays, filter papers exposed to the smoke of the plant repelled nymphs of T. infestans. Activity remained significant after storing the exposed filter papers for 9 days. Chemical analysis of smoke and literature data suggested that capsaicinoids present in the smoke were responsible for the repellent effect. The data presented provide a rationale for the use of C. baccatumvar. baccatumto control the Chagas vector bythe guaraní populations.

2022 ◽  
Christian Jørgensen ◽  
Jens Søndergaard ◽  
Martin Larsen ◽  
Kristian Kjeldsen ◽  
Diogo Rosa ◽  

In the current Matters Arising we present results from verifying control measurements of dissolved mercury (Hg) in glacial meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), which significantly challenges the conclusions of the recent publication by Hawkings et al. (2021). By direct measurements of meltwater in the same glacial catchment area, we demonstrate that the input Hg concentration for the regional upscaling in Hawkings et al (2021) is likely vastly over-estimated with major implications for the validity of the asserted extreme yield of Hg from the GrIS. In addition, we present a plausible explanation for the high Hg concentration values in the study, namely hitherto unidentified cross-contamination of water samples by mercury chloride (HgCl2), which was present and used for other purposes during field work. Together, the result of our control study potentially invalidates the suggested implications of geologically sourced Hg under the southwestern margin of the GrIS on the Arctic ecosystem in both current and future climate conditions.

Geosciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Emanuelle Frery ◽  
Conor Byrne ◽  
Russell Crosbie ◽  
Alec Deslandes ◽  
Tim Evans ◽  

This study assesses potential geological connections between the unconventional petroleum plays in the Beetaloo Sub-basin, regional aquifers in overlying basins, and the near surface water assets in the Beetaloo Sub-basin Northern Territory, Australia. To do so, we built an innovative multi-disciplinary toolbox including multi-physics and multi-depth imaging of the geological formations, as well as the study of potentially active tectonic surface features, which we combined with measurement of the helium content in water sampled in the aquifer systems and a comparative analysis of the surface drainage network and fault lineaments orientation. Structures, as well as potential natural active and paleo-fluid or gas leakage pathways, were imaged with a reprocessing and interpretation of existing and newly acquired Beetaloo seismic reflection 2D profiles and magnetic datasets to determine potential connections and paleo-leakages. North to north-northwest trending strike slip faults, which have been reactivated in recent geological history, are controlling the deposition at the edges of the Beetaloo Sub-basin. There are two spring complexes associated with this system, the Hot Spring Valley at the northern edge of the eastern Beetaloo Sub-basin and the Mataranka Springs 10 km north of the western sub-basin. Significant rectangular stream diversions in the Hot Spring Valley also indicates current or recently active tectonics. This suggests that those deep-rooted fault systems are likely to locally connect the shallow unconfined aquifer with a deeper gas or fluid source component, possibly without connection with the Beetaloo unconventional prospective plays. However, the origin and flux of this deeper source is unknown and needs to be further investigated to assess if deep circulation is happening through the identified stratigraphic connections. Few north-west trending post-Cambrian fault segments have been interpreted in prospective zones for dry gas plays of the Velkerri Formation. The segments located in the northern part of the eastern Beetaloo Sub-basin do not show any evidence of modern leakages. The segments located around Elliot, in the south of the eastern Beetaloo Sub-basin, as well as low-quality seismic imaging of potential faults in the central part of the western sub-basin, could have been recently reactivated. They could act as open pathways of fluid and gas leakage, sourced from the unconventional plays, deeper formations of the Beetaloo Sub-basin or even much deeper origin, excluding the mantle on the basis of low 3He/4He ratios. In those areas, the data are sparse and of poor quality; further field work is necessary to assess whether such pathways are currently active.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 82-87
A. L. Toygildin ◽  
M. I. Podsevalov ◽  
I. A. Toygildina ◽  
V. N. Austin

In the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of the Volga region, winter wheat occupies the largest area among grain crops, which is associated with its relatively high productivity, economic efficiency and the ability to unload the peaks of field work in the spring. Winter wheat makes fuller use of the bioclimatic potential of productivity, especially in the arid conditions of the region. Despite the fact that the adaptive-integrated approach to the joint use of agricultural techniques and chemicalization means when growing grain crops provides significant and stable yield increases, they require regular study to adjust agricultural technologies. The article presents the results of 3-year studies in a stationary field experiment to assess the influence of predecessors, methods of basic soil cultivation and plant protection on the spread of diseases and weeds, as well as on the yield of winter wheat. Studies have shown that the placement of winter wheat after clean fallow helps to reduce the infestation of crops, and after cruciferous predecessors (white mustard, spring rape)— the spread of root rot (Bipolaris sorokiniana (Helmintosporium sativum)) and leaf rust (Puccinia recondita). Winter wheat yield after different predecessors varied from 5.16 t/ha for pure fallow to 3.77–4.04 t/ha after nonfallow predecessors with a significant increase in adaptive-integrated plant protection by 0.37 t/ha (9.2%) and insignificant — for combined tillage in crop rotation — by 0.19 t/ha (4.6%).

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Limbanazo Matandika ◽  
Kate Millar ◽  
Eric Umar ◽  
Edward Joy ◽  
Joseph Mfutso-Bengo

Abstract Background There have been notable investments in large multi-partner research programmes across the agriculture-nutrition-health (ANH) nexus. These studies often involve human participants and commonly require research ethics review. These ANH studies are complex and can raise ethical issues that need pre-field work, ethical oversight and also need an embedded process that can identify, characterise and manage ethical issues as the research work develops, as such more embedded and dynamic ethics processes are needed. This work builds on notions of ‘ethics in practice’ by developing an approach to facilitate ethical reflection within large research programmes. This study explores the application of a novel ‘real-time research ethics approach’ (RTREA) and how this can support ethical mindfulness. This involves embedding ethical analysis and decision-making within research implementation, with a continuous dialogue between participants and researchers. The aim is to improve ethical responsiveness and participant experience, which in turn may ethically support adherence and retention. In this case study, a bioethics team (BT) was embedded in a community-based randomised, controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi, titled the ‘Addressing Hidden Hunger with Agronomy’. To identify ethical issues, the researchers conducted ten focus group discussions, fourteen in-depth interviews with key informants, two workshops, observed two sensitisation and three activity meetings conducted by the trial team, and analysed fifteen reports from pre-trial to trial implementation. Results The RTREA facilitated the identification of social and ethical concerns and made researchers aware of participants’ ‘lived research experience’. To address concerns and experiences, the BT worked with researchers to facilitate conversation spaces where social and ethical issues were discussed. Conversation spaces were designed to create partnerships and promote participatory methods to capture trial participants’ (TPs) perspectives and experiences. Conclusions The use of RTREA showed the value of real-time and continuous engagement between TPs and researchers. These real-time processes could be embedded to complement traditional ethical guidance and expert opinions. A deeper engagement appeared to support greater operationalising of principles of inclusion, empowerment, and participant autonomy and supported researchers ‘ethical mindfulness’ which in turn may support instrumental outcomes of high recruitment, retention, and adherence levels.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Grigoria Zitouni-Petrogianni ◽  
Angeliki Paraschou ◽  
Helen Maistrou

This article investigates the problem of changing land uses in historical city centers, a problem which often leads to the alteration of their historical, architectural and functional physiognomy, as well as the loss of their inhabitants. It also discusses the importance of land management and proposes a multifunctional reuse model for sustainable development in abandoned or degraded areas in historic cities. This problem is found in historical centers nowadays, especially in the European South, and many theoretical texts and urban studies deal with the issue. Taking under consideration the case of the Historical “Commercial Triangle” of Athens, this article presents the results of an extensive field work, which led to the mapping and analysis of the neighborhood’s special identity. Subsequently, these results lead to the presentation of the problems caused by the dominating uses of recreation and tourism, which suppress the traditional existing commercial uses and the residency. It concludes by proposing preservation strategies for the reuse and development of the area and emphasizes the importance of a management plan aiming towards the preservation of the historical character of the commercial center and its sustainable development. The work presented in this paper is based on an assignment produced in 2020 for the purposes of the post-graduate course “Protection and Preservation of a historical urban center or settlement”, which is part of the post-graduate program “Protection of Monuments” in the School of Architecture, NTUA.

2022 ◽  
pp. 75-84
Maria Zaitseva

The paper discusses the lithological and facial features of the terrigenous-carbonate (biohermic) ore-bearing geological formation of the Moryanikho-Merkurikhinskoye ore field (Yenisei Ridge), which hosts stratiform lead-zinc deposits in carbonate strata. Ore-hosting lithofacies and their paleostructural position are characterized. Based on the previous studies, as well as the author’s own materials obtained as a result of field work, the main favorable lithological, facial and structural factors for hosting Moryanikhinsky-type stratiform lead-zinc mineralization are defined: the presence of paleodepressions within the shelf zone; development of carbonate rocks – dolomites, stromatolite dolomites and limestones, which are biohermic structures on the slopes of paleo-uplifts; the presence of an admixture of tuffaceous material in terrigenous rock varieties. The influence of tectonic faults on the formation of ore deposits and the morphology of ore bodies is indicated. The main types of ores of the Moryanikho- Merkurikhinsky ore field, as well as their mineral composition are described. The paper discusses the main ore types, as well as their mineral composition typical of the Moryanikho-Merkurikhinskoye ore field. The largest and well-studied lead and zinc stratiform Moryanikhinskoye deposit and Merkurikhinskoye ore occurrence located within the ore field are briefly characterized. The Moryanikhinskoye deposit is a typical example for searching for stratiform deposits of lead and zinc in the carbonate strata of the Angara-Bolshepitskaya mineragenic zone, which is of practical interest in developing predictive prospecting models of deposits and improving the efficiency of prospecting.

2022 ◽  
pp. 4195-4207
Marwa Mohamed ◽  
Zahra Ezz El Din ◽  
Laila Qais

    A three-dimensional (3D) model extraction represents the best way to reflect the reality in all details. This explains the trends and tendency of many scientific disciplines towards making measurements, calculations and monitoring in various fields using such model. Although there are many ways to produce the 3D model like as images, integration techniques, and laser scanning, however, the quality of their products is not the same in terms of accuracy and detail. This article aims to assess the 3D point clouds model accuracy results from close range images and laser scan data based on Agi soft photoscan and cloud compare software to determine the compatibility of both datasets for several applications. College of Science, Departments of Mathematics and Computer in the University of Baghdad campus were exploited to create the proposed 3D model as this area location, which is one of the distinctive features of the university, allows making measurements freely from all sides. Results of this study supported by statistical analysis including 2 sample T-test and RMSE calculation in addition to visual comparison. Through this research, we note that the laser3D model provides many points in a short time, so it will reduce the field work and also its data is faster in processing to produce a reliable model of the scanned area compared with data derived from photogrammetry, then the difference were computed for all the reference points.

2022 ◽  
Vol 81 (1) ◽  
Milica Stanišić-Vujačić ◽  
Danijela Stešević ◽  
Sead Hadžiablahović ◽  
Danka Caković ◽  
Urban Šilc

Our phytosociological study in Montenegro (Ćemovsko polje) deals with the syntaxonomy of arid grasslands in the Adriatic region and, in particular, different interpretations of plant communities dominated by Asphodelus ramosus. The main aims of this study were to contribute to knowledge of the composition of dry grasslands dominated by Asphodelus ramosus in Montenegro and to compare instances of Asphodelus ramosus dominated vegetation along the Adriatic. Our vegetation dataset included 82 phytosociological relevés: 17 from our recent field work and 72 relevés of South European Asphodelus ramosus communities. Ordination analysis (NMDS) was used for comparison of Asphodelus ramosus dominated communities in the Adriatic region. The Asphodelus ramosus community from Montenegro was classified into Bromo erecti-Chrysopogonetum grylli. The analysis revealed two distinct vegetation groups: grassland communities of the vegetation class Festuco-Brometea from Montenegro, Croatia and Albania, and edge vegetation of the new class Charybdido pancratii-Asphodeletea ramosi from Italy. Comparison with similar vegetation types shows high similarity with associations on the eastern Adriatic coast, where they are treated as grassland communities belonging to the alliance Chrysopogono grylli-Koelerion splendentis, order Scorzoneretalia villosae, class Festuco-Brometea.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Henrique Chupil ◽  
Emygdio Leite de Araujo Monteiro-Filho

Abstract: The Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso (PEIC), located on extreme South of São Paulo’s cost, in Brazil, holds an important Atlantic Forest remnant which still in a good state of conservation, but lack a deepen study about the avian community that habits the island. This study aimed to elaborate a census of avian species that occur in the park approaching richness, occurrence frequency, occurrence status and the structure of trophic guilds. A total of 25 field expedictions occurred between September 2015 and September 2017 during five days each, the field work included different ecosystems as mangrove, restinga, forest, sandbank, beach and marine. The census was made combine three different techniques used in ornithological studies: visual identification, auditory identification and catch by mist-nets (with five fixed sites in mangrove, restinga and forest). Were recorded 335 avian species, with 28 of them endemic from Brazil and 33 being threatened with extinction. Seventy-three species were recorded in all sampled months (FO 100%), while 46 were recorded in just one month (FO = 4%). About occurrence status, 55% of species are residents, 20% occasional visitors, 13% unusual residents, 6% migratory and 6% visitors. According the recorded species were recognized 25 trophic guilds based on food items, corporal size and strata that commonly forage, which of most representative in the community, the guild of “of insectivorous of medium-strata” (N = 55), “canopy omnivorous” (N = 33), “aquatic invertebrates consummers” and “piscivorous” (N = 31). Finally, with the current study, we aimed through a significative field effort bring a better knowledge about avifauna of PEIC, which could be a good base when is necessary take actions that aim to park management and the Conservation Unities around it.

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