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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 115-119
Author(s):  
Eli S ◽  
Aaron FE ◽  
Okagua KE ◽  
Omodu OJ ◽  
Iyama AC

Background: With the high prevalence of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, screening for this viral infection is a routine in many health institutions prior to surgery, the world has recorded success story in the research of HIV especially with the advent of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) this disease burden has been reduced globally. The prevalence of HI in Nigeria is 1.4%. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV in surgical patients at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Method: This was a cross sectional study of ANC attendees at the RSUTH, from January 1st to June 31st, 2019. They were surgical patients who were systematically selected, information was obtained from patients case notes with a structured proforma. The information obtained was coded and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Result: A total of 370 patients were attended to pre-operatively. There were 146 (39.5%) males and 224 (60.5%) females. The mean age was 31 years. One hundred and ninety four (52.4%) were obstetrics and gynaecological surgeries while 176 (47.6 %) were non-gynaecological surgeries. The commonest indication for surgery was caesarean representing 126 (34.1%) of the subjects.The prevalence of HIV in surgical patients was 8 (2.1%). Three (1.6%) of the obstetrics and gynaecological patients had HIV compared to 1(0.5%) non-obstetrics and gynaecological patient. Conclusion: The study revealed that prevalence of HIV in surgical patients at the RSUTH was high (2.1%). HIV infection was thrice as common in obstetrics and gynaecological patients compared with other surgical disciplines. There is need to step up surveillance amongst ANC attendees who are reflection of the populace in this region.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (9) ◽  
pp. 174-182
Author(s):  
Kampamba Martin ◽  
Demba Fatima ◽  
Mudenda Steward ◽  
Mufwambi Webrod ◽  
Zingani Ellah ◽  
...  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257004
Author(s):  
Ramzy B. Anafo ◽  
Yacoba Atiase ◽  
Fleischer C. N. Kotey ◽  
Nicholas T. K. D. Dayie ◽  
Patience B. Tetteh-Quarcoo ◽  
...  

Aim To investigate the epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among people with diabetes at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, including the prevalence, predictors of carriage, and antibiotic resistance. Methodology This study was cross-sectional, involving 300 diabetes patients and 106 non-diabetic individuals. Swab specimens of the nares were obtained from the participants and bacteriologically-cultured. Identification and characterization of S. aureus and MRSA were based on standard bacteriological methods; antimicrobial susceptibility testing was by the Kirby-Bauer method. Results The prevalence of staphylococcal carriage, the diabetes group relative to the non-diabetes group, were 31.0% and 10.4% (S. aureus), and 3.3% and 0.0% (MRSA). Presence of diabetes predisposed to S. aureus carriage, but not MRSA nor coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) carriage (OR = 3.88; p < 0.0001). Colonization with CoNS was protective of S. aureus (OR = 0.039, p < 0.001) and MRSA (OR = 0.115, p = 0.043) colonization among the diabetics. The antimicrobial resistance patterns recorded among the S. aureus isolated from the diabetic individuals relative to the non-diabetics were as follows: penicillin (95% vs. 91%), tetracycline (37% vs. 27%), cotrimoxazole (30% vs. 36%), erythromycin (17% vs. 0%), norfloxacin (13% vs. 0%), clindamycin (12% vs. 0%), gentamicin (9% vs. 0%), fusidic acid (10% vs. 9%), linezolid (4% vs. 0%), and rifampicin (5% vs. 0%). The proportion of multidrug resistant S. aureus was 41% (n = 38) in the diabetes group and 0% in the non-diabetes group; this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Conclusions The presence of diabetes predisposed the participants to S. aureus carriage by almost four folds, but not MRSA carriage. Colonization with CoNS was protective of S. aureus and MRSA carriage in the diabetes group. Finally, linezolid remains a good therapeutic agent for anti-MRSA therapy.


Author(s):  
Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani ◽  
Premalatha Paulsamy ◽  
Absar Ahmed Qureshi ◽  
Krishnaraju Venkatesan ◽  
E. Eva Lobelle ◽  
...  

Nursing is an essential component of all healthcare services, with the potential to have a significant and long-term impact on health outcomes for the world's ageing population. As their professional behaviour plays a major role in improving the quality of patient care, this study was conducted to determine the professional behaviour of nurses. A descriptive and cross-sectional study design was selected with fifty nurses working in a selected teaching hospital who were selected using convenient sampling technique. The Behavioural Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing (BIPN) was used to determine the professional behaviour of nurses. The inventory has a total possible composite score of 27. All of the items were dichotomous and questioned about the nurse's actions in the last two years. The autonomy and research were the areas where nurses receive the lowest mean ratings from the BIPN subscales. The nurse's mean scores in the areas of competence and continuous education (mean = 1.97), educational preparedness (mean = 1.87) and application of theory (mean = 1.73) were the highest with the mean total score from BIPN was 10.44± 3.55. The results showed that age, gender, nurses' role, their years of experience and educational status had a statistically significant association with professional behaviour. Hence, the ways to improve the professional behaviour among nurses to be investigated and must be supported to uplift the image of nursing and the quality of patient care.


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