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AGBO Chukwuemeka Ogugua

The aim of this paper is to examine the adaptive capacity for community resilience. Adaptive capacity supports the residents of a local community to survive and recover during and after a disaster. The holistic view of community resilience is seen as personal attributes possessed by community residents which enables them to survive during and after a disaster. Reviewed articles and other secondary sources that discussed on the topic of community resilience and adaptive capacity were used for this study through content analysis and empirical evidence. The discussion of the theories in this paper shed more light towards understanding the four-way adaptive capacity. Community resilience increases the chance of community adaptation during and after a disaster. This study will encourage private businesses and professional individuals to become part of a community by providing them with resources needed to survive in the face or after a disaster. It will also contribute to related research in the future which focuses on adaptive capacity for community resilience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 412-425
Xue-Feng Zhou ◽  
Si-Chao Gu ◽  
Wan-Bo Zhu ◽  
Jia-Zhao Yang ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
A. Yair Grinberger ◽  
Marco Minghini ◽  
Godwin Yeboah ◽  
Levente Juhász ◽  
Peter Mooney

The academic community frequently engages with OpenStreetMap (OSM) as a data source and research subject, acknowledging its complex and contextual nature. However, existing literature rarely considers the position of academic research in relation to the OSM community. In this paper we explore the extent and nature of engagement between the academic research community and the larger communities in OSM. An analysis of OSM-related publications from 2016 to 2019 and seven interviews conducted with members of one research group engaged in OSM-related research are described. The literature analysis seeks to uncover general engagement patterns while the interviews are used to identify possible causal structures explaining how these patterns may emerge within the context of a specific research group. Results indicate that academic papers generally show few signs of engagement and adopt data-oriented perspectives on the OSM project and product. The interviews expose that more complex perspectives and deeper engagement exist within the research group to which the interviewees belong, e.g., engaging in OSM mapping and direct interactions based on specific points-of-contact in the OSM community. Several conclusions and recommendations emerge, most notably: that every engagement with OSM includes an interpretive act which must be acknowledged and that the academic community should act to triangulate its interpretation of the data and OSM community by diversifying their engagement. This could be achieved through channels such as more direct interactions and inviting members of the OSM community to participate in the design and evaluation of research projects and programmes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Kayvan Kousha ◽  
Mike Thelwall

Abstract Two partly conflicting academic pressures from the seriousness of the Covid-19 pandemic are the need for faster peer review of Covid-19 health-related research and greater scrutiny of its findings. This paper investigates whether decreases in peer review durations for Covid-19 articles were universal across 97 major medical journals, Nature, Science, and Cell. The results suggest that on average, Covid-19 articles submitted during 2020 were reviewed 1.7–2.1 times faster than non-Covid-19 articles submitted during 2017–2020. Nevertheless, whilst the review speed of Covid-19 research was particularly fast during the first five months (1.9–3.4 times faster) of the pandemic (January–May 2020), this speed advantage was no longer evident for articles submitted November–December 2020. Faster peer review also associates with higher citation impact for Covid-19 articles in the same journals, suggesting it did not usually compromise the scholarly impact of important Covid-19 research. Overall, then, it seems that core medical and general journals responded quickly but carefully to the pandemic, although the situation returned closer to normal within a year. Peer Review

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
John Kanazawa ◽  
Sara Gianella ◽  
Susanna Concha-Garcia ◽  
Jeff Taylor ◽  
Andy Kaytes ◽  

Abstract Background One of the next frontiers in HIV research is focused on finding a cure. A new priority includes people with HIV (PWH) with non-AIDS terminal illnesses who are willing to donate their bodies at the end-of-life (EOL) to advance the search towards an HIV cure. We endeavored to understand perceptions of this research and to identify ethical and practical considerations relevant to implementing it. Methods We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and 3 virtual focus groups among four types of key stakeholders in the United States (PWH, biomedical HIV cure researchers, HIV clinicians, and bioethicists) to obtain triangulated viewpoints because little was known about the ethics of this topic. Each group was queried as to ethical considerations, safeguards, and protections for conducting HIV cure-related research at the EOL to ensure this research remains acceptable. Results All four key stakeholder groups generally supported HIV cure-related research conducted at the EOL because of the history of altruism within the PWH community and the potential for substantial scientific knowledge to be gained. Our informants expressed that: (1) Strong stakeholder and community involvement are integral to the ethical and effective implementation, as well as the social acceptability of this research; (2) PWH approaching the EOL should not inherently be considered a vulnerable class and their autonomy must be respected when choosing to participate in HIV cure-related research at the EOL; (3) Greater diversity among study participants, as well as multi-disciplinary research teams, is necessitated by HIV cure-related research at the EOL; (4) The sensitive nature of this research warrants robust oversight to ensure a favorable risk/benefit balance and to minimize the possibility of therapeutic misconception or undue influence; and (5) Research protocols should remain flexible to accommodate participants’ comfort and needs at the EOL. Conclusion Because of the ethical issues presented by HIV cure-related research at the EOL, robust ethical safeguards are of utmost importance. The proposed ethical and practical considerations presented herein is a first step in determining the best way to maximize this research’s impact and social value. More much inquiry will need to be directed towards understanding context-specific and cultural considerations for implementing EOL HIV cure research in diverse settings.

2022 ◽  
Haoran Mu ◽  
Wenzhi Yu ◽  
Jian Yuan ◽  
Shenghuang Lin ◽  
Guangyu Zhang

Abstract Since being rediscovered as an emerging 2D material, BP with extraordinary energy structure and unusually strong interlayer interactions offer new opportunities for optoelectronics and photonics. However, due to the thin atomic body and the ease of degradation with water and oxides, BP is highly sensitive to the surrounding environment. Therefore, high-quality engineering of interfaces and surfaces plays an essential role in BP-based applications. In this review, begun with a review of properties of BP, different strategies of interface and surfaces engineering for high ON-OFF ratio, enhanced optical absorption, and fast optical response are reviewed and highlighted, and recent state-of-the-art advances on optoelectronic and photonic devices are demonstrated. Finally, the opportunities and challenges are outlooked for future BP-related research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiali Xue ◽  
Xinwei Yang ◽  
Zhongyi Deng ◽  
Huan Tu ◽  
Dezhi Kong ◽  

Background: In recent years, with the development of medical science and artificial intelligence, research on rehabilitation robots has gained more and more attention, for nearly 10 years in the Web of Science database by journal of rehabilitation robot-related research literature analysis, to parse and track rehabilitation robot research hotspot and front, and provide some guidance for future research.Methods: This study employed computer retrieval of rehabilitation robot-related research published in the core data collection of the Web of Science database from 2010 to 2020, using CiteSpace 5.7 visualization software. The hotspots and frontiers of rehabilitation robot research are analyzed from the aspects of high-influence countries or regions, institutions, authors, high-frequency keywords, and emergent words.Results: A total of 3,194 articles were included. In recent years, the research on rehabilitation robots has been continuously hot, and the annual publication of relevant literature has shown a trend of steady growth. The United States ranked first with 819 papers, and China ranked second with 603 papers. Northwestern University ranked first with 161 publications. R. Riener, a professor at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, ranked as the first author with 48 articles. The Journal of Neural Engineering and Rehabilitation has the most published research, with 211 publications. In the past 10 years, research has focused on intelligent control, task analysis, and the learning, performance, and reliability of rehabilitation robots to realize the natural and precise interaction between humans and machines. Research on neural rehabilitation robots, brain–computer interface, virtual reality, flexible wearables, task analysis, and exoskeletons has attracted more and more attention.Conclusions: At present, the brain–computer interface, virtual reality, flexible wearables, task analysis, and exoskeleton rehabilitation robots are the research trends and hotspots. Future research should focus on the application of machine learning (ML), dimensionality reduction, and feature engineering technologies in the research and development of rehabilitation robots to improve the speed and accuracy of algorithms. To achieve wide application and commercialization, future rehabilitation robots should also develop toward mass production and low cost. We should pay attention to the functional needs of patients, strengthen multidisciplinary communication and cooperation, and promote rehabilitation robots to better serve the rehabilitation medical field.

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