detrended fluctuation
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2022 ◽  
Nicholas F Lahens ◽  
Mahboob Rahman ◽  
Jordana B Cohen ◽  
Debbie L Cohen ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. To facilitate out-of-clinic evaluation, we piloted wearable device-based analysis of heart rate variability and behavioral readouts in patients with CKD participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort and (n=49) controls. Time-specific partitioning of HRV readouts indicate higher parasympathetic nervous activity during the night (mean RR at night 14.4+/-1.9 ms versus 12.8+/-2.1 ms during active hours; n=47, ANOVA q=0.001). The alpha2 long-term fluctuations in the detrended fluctuation analysis, a parameter predictive of cardiovascular mortality, significantly differentiated between diabetic and non-diabetic patients (prominent at night with 0.58+/-0.2 versus 0.45+/-0.12, respectively, adj. p=0.004). Both diabetic and nondiabetic CKD patients showed loss of rhythmic organization compared to controls, with diabetic CKD patients exhibiting deconsolidation of peak phases between their activity and SDNN (standard deviation of interbeat intervals) rhythms (mean phase difference CKD 8.3h, CKD/T2DM 4h, controls 6.8h). This work provides a roadmap toward deriving actionable clinical insights from the data collected by wearable devices outside of highly controlled clinical environments.

Fractals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Domingos Aguiar ◽  
Carlos Renato Dos Santos ◽  
Romulo Simoes Cezar Menezes ◽  
Antonio Celso Dantas Antonino ◽  
Borko Stosic

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Pedro Carpena ◽  
Manuel Gómez-Extremera ◽  
Pedro A. Bernaola-Galván

Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has become a standard method to quantify the correlations and scaling properties of real-world complex time series. For a given scale ℓ of observation, DFA provides the function F(ℓ), which quantifies the fluctuations of the time series around the local trend, which is substracted (detrended). If the time series exhibits scaling properties, then F(ℓ)∼ℓα asymptotically, and the scaling exponent α is typically estimated as the slope of a linear fitting in the logF(ℓ) vs. log(ℓ) plot. In this way, α measures the strength of the correlations and characterizes the underlying dynamical system. However, in many cases, and especially in a physiological time series, the scaling behavior is different at short and long scales, resulting in logF(ℓ) vs. log(ℓ) plots with two different slopes, α1 at short scales and α2 at large scales of observation. These two exponents are usually associated with the existence of different mechanisms that work at distinct time scales acting on the underlying dynamical system. Here, however, and since the power-law behavior of F(ℓ) is asymptotic, we question the use of α1 to characterize the correlations at short scales. To this end, we show first that, even for artificial time series with perfect scaling, i.e., with a single exponent α valid for all scales, DFA provides an α1 value that systematically overestimates the true exponent α. In addition, second, when artificial time series with two different scaling exponents at short and large scales are considered, the α1 value provided by DFA not only can severely underestimate or overestimate the true short-scale exponent, but also depends on the value of the large scale exponent. This behavior should prevent the use of α1 to describe the scaling properties at short scales: if DFA is used in two time series with the same scaling behavior at short scales but very different scaling properties at large scales, very different values of α1 will be obtained, although the short scale properties are identical. These artifacts may lead to wrong interpretations when analyzing real-world time series: on the one hand, for time series with truly perfect scaling, the spurious value of α1 could lead to wrongly thinking that there exists some specific mechanism acting only at short time scales in the dynamical system. On the other hand, for time series with true different scaling at short and large scales, the incorrect α1 value would not characterize properly the short scale behavior of the dynamical system.

Leonardo Rydin Gorjão ◽  
Dirk Witthaut ◽  
Pedro G. Lind ◽  
Wided Medjroubi

The European Power Exchange has introduced day-ahead auctions and continuous trading spot markets to facilitate the insertion of renewable electricity. These markets are designed to balance excess or lack of power in short time periods, which leads to a large stochastic variability of the electricity prices. Furthermore, the different markets show different stochastic memory in their electricity price time series, which seem to be the cause for the large volatility. In particular, we show the antithetical temporal correlation in the intraday 15 minutes spot markets in comparison to the day-ahead hourly market. We contrast the results from Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to a new method based on the Kramers–Moyal equation in scale. For very short term (< 12 hours), all price time series show positive temporal correlations (Hurst exponent H > 0.5) except for the intraday 15 minute market, which shows strong negative correlations (H < 0.5). For longer term periods covering up to two days, all price time series are anti-correlated (H < 0.5).

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Faheem Aslam ◽  
Paulo Ferreira ◽  
Fahd Amjad ◽  
Haider Ali

This study provides the first evidence of market efficiency of drug indices, especially cannabis and tobacco, which are known in finance as sin markets. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed on the daily data of six cannabis and one tobacco indices in order to measure efficiency by quantifying the intensity of self-similarity. The findings confirm multifractality in all sample series. Interestingly, Dow Jones Tobacco (DJUSTB) Index shows the highest multifractality, demonstrating the lowest efficiency, whereas S&P/TSX Cannabis (SPTXCAN) Index is the most efficient of all the time series under analysis, with the lowest multifractality levels. Only the North American Marijuana (NAMMAR), Cannabis World Index Gross Total Return (CANWLDGR) and DJUSTB show persistent behavior. These findings could be of interest to policymakers and regulators to establish new reforms to improve the efficiency of these markets, as well as for actual and potential investors.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (11) ◽  
pp. 1505
Maria C. Mariani ◽  
William Kubin ◽  
Peter K. Asante ◽  
Joe A. Guthrie ◽  
Osei K. Tweneboah

In this paper, we have modified the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) using the ternary Cantor set. We propose a modification of the DFA algorithm, Cantor DFA (CDFA), which uses the Cantor set theory of base 3 as a scale for segment sizes in the DFA algorithm. An investigation of the phenomena generated from the proof using real-world time series based on the theory of the Cantor set is also conducted. This new approach helps reduce the overestimation problem of the Hurst exponent of DFA by comparing it with its inverse relationship with α of the Truncated Lévy Flight (TLF). CDFA is also able to correctly predict the memory behavior of time series.

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