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Author(s):  
Gabriel G. Zimmermann ◽  
Samir P. Jasper ◽  
Daniel Savi ◽  
Leonardo L. Kmiecik ◽  
Lauro Strapasson Neto ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT The establishment of grain crops in Brazil is an important industrial process in the agricultural chain, requiring the correct deposition of granular fertilizer over the sowing furrow and more efficient, precise, and sustainable assessments in the operation, which can be achieved with the statistical process control. This study aimed to assess the effect of the angular velocity on different inclinations of the helical metering mechanism on the granular fertilizer deposition. An automated electronic bench was used to assess the deposition quality of granular fertilizers considering different angular velocities (1.11, 1.94, and 2.77 m s-1) and longitudinal and transverse inclinations (+15, +7.5, 0, −7.5, and −15°), with the helical doser by overflow. Flow data were collected and submitted to descriptive statistics and statistical process control. The metering mechanism showed expected variations, with acceptable performance under process control. The values of the flow rates of the granular fertilizer increased as velocity increased, standing out longitudinal inclinations of +7.5 and +15°, providing higher fertilizer depositions.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Siti Maryam Mohamad Azmi ◽  
Suhaiza Ismail

Purpose This paper aims to systematically analyze the weaknesses of public procurement in Malaysia as reported in the Auditor General’s Reports from 2011 until 2018. Specifically, the study examines the types of weaknesses, the modes of public procurement involved with the weaknesses, the procurement categories involved with the weaknesses and the key recommendations to mitigate the weaknesses in public procurement. Design/methodology/approach A document analysis was adopted in achieving the objective. The Auditor General’s reports and the reports of activities of federal ministries/departments published by the National Audit Department, Malaysia from the year 2011 until 2018 are the main documents used in this study. The data gathered were analyzed using frequency distribution and displayed with descriptive statistics and relevant graphs. Findings The findings of the study revealed that the top five reported are non-compliance to scope, specifications and terms of contracts; delayed completion/non-completion of project; poor documentation; low quality of products, service and work; and little or no prior planning. It is also found that direct negotiation mode was reported with the highest issues of public procurement, while the procurement mode with the least public procurement weaknesses is direct purchase. Moreover, it was found that work category is the highest with public procurement issues reported compared to supplies and services. The top recommendations given by the Auditor General were to improve internal control, to enhance monitoring, to establish planning in details, to improve assets management and to take appropriate actions toward contractors and procurement officers when needed. Originality/value This is among a few studies that attempted to systematically examine the main issues regarding the public procurement activities in Malaysia. This study highlighted pertinent aspects of the public procurement activities, which need close attention by the relevant authorities to ensure efficient and effective public procurement.


Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Author(s):  
Luciana Debs ◽  
Jamie Metzinger

The present research analyzes the impact of nine factors related to household demographics, building equipment, and building characteristics towards a home’s total energy consumption while controlling for climate. To do this, we have surveyed single-family owned houses from the 2015 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) dataset and controlled the analysis by Building America climate zones. Our findings are based on descriptive statistics and multiple regression models, and show that for a median-sized home in three of the five climate zones, heating equipment is still the main contributor to a household’s total energy consumed, followed by home size. Social-economic factors and building age were found relevant for some regions, but often contributed less than size and heating equipment towards total energy consumption. Water heater and education were not found to be statistically relevant in any of the regions. Finally, solar power was only found to be a significant factor in one of the regions, positively contributing to a home’s total energy consumed. These findings are helpful for policymakers to evaluate the specificities of climate regions in their jurisdiction, especially guiding homeowners towards more energy-efficient heating equipment and home configurations, such as reduced size.


BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Linda Rainey ◽  
Daniëlle van der Waal ◽  
Louise S. Donnelly ◽  
Jake Southworth ◽  
David P. French ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening (PROCAS) study provided women who were eligible for breast cancer screening in Greater Manchester (United Kingdom) with their 10-year risk of breast cancer, i.e., low (≤1.5%), average (1.5–4.99%), moderate (5.-7.99%) or high (≥8%). The aim of this study is to explore which factors were associated with women’s uptake of screening and prevention recommendations. Additionally, we evaluated women’s organisational preferences regarding tailored screening. Methods A total of 325 women with a self-reported low (n = 60), average (n = 125), moderate (n = 80), or high (n = 60) risk completed a two-part web-based survey. The first part contained questions about personal characteristics. For the second part women were asked about uptake of early detection and preventive behaviours after breast cancer risk communication. Additional questions were posed to explore preferences regarding the organisation of risk-stratified screening and prevention. We performed exploratory univariable and multivariable regression analyses to assess which factors were associated with uptake of primary and secondary breast cancer preventive behaviours, stratified by breast cancer risk. Organisational preferences are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Self-reported breast cancer risk predicted uptake of (a) supplemental screening and breast self-examination, (b) risk-reducing medication and (c) preventive lifestyle behaviours. Further predictors were (a) having a first degree relative with breast cancer, (b) higher age, and (c) higher body mass index (BMI). Women’s organisational preferences for tailored screening emphasised a desire for more intensive screening for women at increased risk by further shortening the screening interval and moving the starting age forward. Conclusions Breast cancer risk communication predicts the uptake of key tailored primary and secondary preventive behaviours. Effective communication of breast cancer risk information is essential to optimise the population-wide impact of tailored screening.


Author(s):  
Jina Yang ◽  
Kon Hee Kim

In this descriptive study, we aimed to identify factors related to emergency room nurses’ disaster triage ability. A total of 166 nurses who worked for emergency departments of general hospitals completed a structured questionnaire consisting of the Disaster Triage Ability Scale (DTAS), the Strategic Thinking Scale (STS), the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI), and the Original Grit Scale (Grit-O). The data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 25.0 by means of descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, the Scheffé post hoc test, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. Participants’ DTAS averaged 14.03 ± 4.28 (Range 0–20) and showed a statistically significant difference according to their experience of triage education (t = 2.26, p = 0.022) as a disaster triage-related attribute. There were significant correlations among DTAS and confidence in the PSI (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), the approach-avoidance style in the PSI (r = −0.28, p < 0.001), and futurism in the STS (r = 0.19, p = 0.019). The strongest predictor was confidence in the PSI; in addition, 14.1% of the DTAS was explained by confidence in the PSI, approach-avoidance in the PSI, and futurism in the STS. Emergency room nurses who received triage education showed a higher level of the DTAS and their DTAS could be explained by problem-solving skills and strategic thinking. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement triage education programs integrated with stress management to improve the approach-avoidance style to ensure better problem-solving skills and to utilize various training methods to enhance confidence to improve problem-solving skills and futurism as part of strategic thinking.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Binyam Fekadu ◽  
Ismael Ali ◽  
Zergu Tafesse ◽  
Hailemariam Segni

Abstract Background Essential newborn care (ENC) is a package of interventions which should be provided for every newborn baby regardless of body size or place of delivery immediately after birth and should be continued for at least the seven days that follows. Even though Ethiopia has endorsed the implementation of ENC, as other many counties, it has been challenged. This study was conducted to measure the level of essential newborn care practice and identify health facility level attributes for consistent delivery of ENC services by health care providers. Methods This study employed a retrospective cross-sectional study design in 425 facilities. Descriptive statistics were formulated and presented in tables. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the statistical association between the outcome variable and the independent variables. All variables with p < 0.2 in the bivariate analysis were identified as candidate variables. Then, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using candidate variables to determine statistically significant predictors of the consistent delivery of ENC by adjusting for possible confounders. Results A total of 273, (64.2%), of facilities demonstrated consistent delivery of ENC. Five factors—availability of essential obstetrics drugs in delivery rooms, high community score card (CSC) performances, availability of maternity waiting homes, consistent partograph use, and availability of women-friendly delivery services were included in the model. The strongest predictor of consistent delivery of essential newborn care (CD-ENC) was consistent partograph use, recording an odds ratio of 2.66 (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.71, 4.13). Similarly, providing women-friendly services was strongly associated with increased likelihood of exhibiting CD-ENC. Furthermore, facilities with essential obstetric drugs had 1.88 (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.08) times higher odds of exhibiting consistent delivery of ENC. Conclusion The delivery of essential newborn care depends on both health provider and facility manager actions and availability of platforms to streamline relationships between the clients and health facility management.


Author(s):  
Lucia Kantorová ◽  
Tereza Friessová ◽  
Simona Slezáková ◽  
Alena Langaufová ◽  
Jiří Kantor ◽  
...  

This is a protocol for a scoping review that aims to determine how guideline authors using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach have addressed previously identified challenges related to public health. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews will be followed. We will search and screen titles of guidelines for all languages published in 2013–2021 in: the GIN library, BIGG database, Epistemonikos GRADE guidelines repository, GRADEpro Database, MAGICapp, NICE and WHO websites. Two reviewers will independently screen full texts of the documents identified. The following information will be extracted: methods used for identifying different stakeholders and incorporating their perspectives; methods for identification and prioritization of non-health outcomes; methods for determining thresholds for decision-making; methods for incorporating and grading evidence from non-randomized studies; methods for addressing concerns with conditional recommendations in public health; methods for reaching consensus; additional methodological concerns; and any modifications made to GRADE. A combination of directed content analysis and descriptive statistics will be used for data analysis, and the findings presented narratively in a tabular and graphical form. In this protocol, we present the pilot results from 13 identified eligible guidelines issued between January and August 2021. We will publish the full review results when they become available.


Author(s):  
Elena Jurevičienė ◽  
Greta Burneikaitė ◽  
Laimis Dambrauskas ◽  
Vytautas Kasiulevičius ◽  
Edita Kazėnaitė ◽  
...  

Various comorbidities and multimorbidity frequently occur in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to the overload of health care systems and increased mortality. We aimed to assess the impact of COPD on the probability and clustering of comorbidities. The cross-sectional analysis of the nationwide Lithuanian database was performed based on the entries of the codes of chronic diseases. COPD was defined on the code J44.8 entry and six-month consumption of bronchodilators. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs) for associations and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were carried out. 321,297 patients aged 40–79 years were included; 4834 of them had COPD. A significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), lung cancer, kidney diseases, and the association of COPD with six-fold higher odds of lung cancer (OR 6.66; p < 0.0001), a two-fold of heart failure (OR 2.61; p < 0.0001), and CVD (OR 1.83; p < 0.0001) was found. Six clusters in COPD males and five in females were pointed out, in patients without COPD—five and four clusters accordingly. The most prevalent cardiovascular cluster had no significant difference according to sex or COPD presence, but a different linkage of dyslipidemia was found. The study raises the need to elaborate adjusted multimorbidity case management and screening tools enabling better outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 284-290
Author(s):  
Kranti Tekulapally

Medical and Dental students are exposed to online classes for the first time during the COVID pandemic. The current study was planned to understand their perceptions about these online classes in contrast to classroom teaching and suggest strategies to improve them.A cross-sectional study was carried out among all the students of Malla Reddy Medical College for Women and Malla Reddy Dental College for Women during September 2020. The study questionnaire containing 20 questions was prepared, prevalidated and distributed to all the study participants as google form. Data from completed questionnaires was entered into an excel sheet and analyzed using descriptive statistics.Analysis of data from 279 students revealed that the 69% of the students used smartphones to attend online classes, 96% of them reported having internet problems and 42% of the students enjoyed the online classes. Understanding of the topic and knowledge gained during online classes were rated average and above average by 59% and 53% of the students respectively. Many students felt that long screen hours have made the classes less interesting and caused health issues like headaches, eyestrain, and backache. They also felt that online classes were less interactive and did not provide much clinical and practical knowledge.Students showed a negative response to online classes. There is a need to make online classes more interactive and interesting by using certain strategies like problem-solving activities, quizzes, discussions, surveys, and polls. Faculty should be trained in good online teaching practices to ensure its success.


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