Descriptive Statistics
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Marcus Rodrigues Peixoto ◽  
Jorge Brantes Ferreira ◽  
Laís Oliveira

ABSTRACT Context: teleconsultation can be a strategic technological tool for patients to access quality healthcare while dealing with resource challenges within health industry. It can be particularly relevant during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, when the social distancing world had to scramble for new technological solutions to offer quality healthcare services with reduced personal contact. Objective: our research proposes an integrative technology acceptance model to evaluate the drivers of teleconsultation adoption by patients, aligning constructs from the technology acceptance model with other drivers, such as technology readiness, trust, and self-efficacy. Methods: analyses included descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling based on survey’s data from a sample of 415 consumers. Results: results indicate significant relationships between the assessed constructs, with particular relevance on the effects of perceived usefulness, anteceded by trust and technology readiness, on attitude and intention to use teleconsultation. Conclusion: our findings provide helpful insights for health organizations and regulators associated with the diffusion of teleconsultation. The study findings also indicate that the challenging COVID-19 pandemic context may be affecting patients’ intention to adopt teleconsultation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Mateus Augusto Bim ◽  
André de Araújo Pinto ◽  
Gaia Salvador Claumann ◽  
Andreia Pelegrini

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the prevalence of abdominal obesity with the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and associated factors in adolescents from a city in Southern Brazil. Methods: A total of 960 adolescents (494 boys) aged 15–18 years old participated in this study. The dependent variable was WHtR; independent variables were self-reported age, economic level, sexual maturation, physical activity level, screen time, and body fat. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: It was observed that 36.7% of the adolescents presented high WHtR (50.2% in girls and 23.9% in boys). Regardless of sex, adolescents with high body fat were more likely of having high WHtR (boys: Odds Ratio [OR] 29.79; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 16.87–52.62; girls: OR 19.43; 95%CI 10.51–35.94). In girls, high WHtR was associated with age (OR 1.83; 95%CI 1.17–2.87), and in boys, with economic level (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.01–5.45). Conclusions: One in each three adolescents has abdominal obesity. Among adolescents with high body fat, girls aged 15–16 and boys with high-income are the groups most exposed to abdominal obesity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 202-208
Kalpana Katel ◽  
Sunita Gurung ◽  
Srijana Gautam ◽  
Muna Bhattrai

Relevance . Oxygen therapy is commonly used in the emergency and critical cases which is the first line treatment in many critical conditions. Oxygen therapy is a medical treatment prescribed mainly for hypoxic patients, which provides oxygen at higher concentrations than that found in atmosphere (21%). Oxygen administering depends on the needs of the patients conditions and in some cases medical treatment. The present study aims to assess the level of awareness on oxygen therapy among nurses and examine the association between level of knowledge, attitude and selected socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods . A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 125 samples. The data were collected for 6 weeks using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) was used for quantitative data analysis and inferential statistics (chi-square) were used to find out the association between level of knowledge, attitude and selected socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Results and Discussion . The study revealed that 74.4% of the nurses had unsatisfactory level of knowledge, 20% had average knowledge and 5.6% had satisfactory level of knowledge regarding oxygen therapy. A significant association was found between the knowledge level and age, educational status and experience of the respondents (p=0.001, 0.000, 0.016). Conclusion . The study concluded that the level of knowledge among nurses regarding oxygen therapy has lower than expected and is unsatisfactory. The results of the study can provide a framework for the healthcare policymakers to develop and implement educational programs on oxygen therapy for nurses in hospital setting.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 793
Sharmin Akhtar ◽  
Rubel Ahmed ◽  
Sharmin Jahan ◽  
Md Mosharaf Hossain

The study aimed to assess the role of having knowledge and essential hygiene practices to prevent coronavirus pandemic and to find out the relationship between people’s knowledge and good hygiene practices with socio-demographic variables during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation. In this study, data were collected from 248 respondents for cross-sectional study using voluntary response sampling from April, 30 2020 to May, 30 2020, during lockdown situation in Bangladesh. Descriptive statistics were done to calculate the frequencies and percentages by using Stata SE 14.2 (StataCorp). Chi-square was performed at the significance level of 5% to find the factors which were associated with knowledge about COVID-19. After knowing about COVID-19, 86.29% respondents had taken preventive measures and 71.37% respondents had agreed to stay at home. Among the respondents, 47.98% were involved in services and were positively associated with good general knowledge of preventive practices. Our present findings indicated significant relationship between good general knowledge and practice of general people towards COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh. The findings of the study are helpful for the researchers and the population to follow all good promotional practices for preventive measures against coronavirus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Kadriye Uçar ◽  
Havva A. Karabulut ◽  
Yunus Yılmaz ◽  
Ahmet S. Uçar

It is extremely important to provide sex education to individuals with intellectual disabilities because they do not know where, when, and in which situations their sexual behavior is appropriate or not, and because they cannot control their sexuality. This study aimed to examine the effect of the Sex Education Program for Families of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ZACEP) on the knowledge level of families of adults with intellectual disabilities and their attitudes towards their children’s sexual development and sex education. The research adopted a single group pre-test and post-test model, one of the experimental research models. The sample consisted of nine mothers. The effectiveness data of the study were collected through the Parental Sex Education Attitude Scale. SPSS packet program was used for data analysis. The pretest and posttest items were first analyzed with descriptive statistics, then frequency, percentage, and maximum-minimum values were calculated. The t-test analysis for dependent samples is required to compare the pretest and posttest scores of a single group. However, due to the number of participants (N=9), the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, which is the nonparametric equivalent of t-test, was used. Research findings showed that the ZACEP did not affect the mothers' attitudes towards the sexuality of adults with intellectual disabilities. Besides, the ZACEP did not affect parents' attitudes towards sexuality at item level.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 113
Karen Ryan ◽  
Bridget M. Johnston ◽  
Clare McAleer ◽  
Laserina O'Connor ◽  
Philip Larkin

Background: The prevalence of constipation in patients with cancer is estimated at 50-90%. It is often associated with pain, anorexia, nausea and vomiting and impacts negatively on quality of life. Despite its common occurrence, it is often poorly recognised and treated by healthcare professionals. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in Ireland to describe constipation prevalence and severity in patients attending cancer centres and to evaluate management efficacy.  In-patients or patients attending day oncology wards in any of the country’s eight designated cancer centres were eligible to participate. Participants were shown the Bristol Stool Chart  and answered questions regarding stool appearance and sensation of  incomplete defecation; they completed the Constipation Assessment Scale. Data on pain character and intensity, opioid use, and prescribed and over-the-counter laxative use were collected. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Significance of variations for continuous data were determined using t-tests. Conditional ordered logistic regression was undertaken to determine factors associated with constipation. Results: The dataset comprised 491 patients. 24.8% had been reviewed by specialist palliative care; 14.5% by the anaesthetic pain team. In total, 42.2% of respondents were taking step 2 or step 3 opioids. Constipation prevalence was 67.6%; 19.4% of patients had Constipation Assessment Scale scores indicating severe constipation. A total of 46% of the respondents were not taking any laxatives. Of those who were taking laxatives, 54.8%  reported constipation symptoms. While opioid use was strongly associated with participants reporting higher scores, this association was not seen in those patients receiving specialist palliative care. Conclusions: Constipation remains a clinical problem in Irish cancer centres. Despite increased opioid use, patients receiving specialist palliative care were more likely to take laxatives and reported less constipation. Specialist palliative care practice should be studied in order to identify what are the transferable ‘ingredients’ of effective constipation management.

Adeniran, A. T. ◽  

The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test has long been an essential tool for researchers conducting studies on multiple experimental groups with or without one or more control groups. This article encapsulates the fundamentals of ANOVA for an intended benefit of the reader of scientific literature who does not possess expertise in statistics. The emphasis is on conceptually-based perspectives regarding the use and interpretation of ANOVA results, with minimal coverage of the mathematical foundations. Data entry, checking basic parametric assumptions of ANOVA, descriptive statistics of the data by treatment groups, fitting ANOVA model, statistical significance of the test based on p-value, and post-hoc analysis are all explored using R-software.

BMC Nursing ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Annica Backman ◽  
Karin Sjögren ◽  
Hugo Lövheim ◽  
Marie Lindkvist ◽  
David Edvardsson

Abstract Background Leadership and stress are common concepts in nursing, and this study explores empirically the connection between leadership and stress of conscience in the context of aged care practice. Previous literature has shown that when staff are unable to carry out their ethical liabilities towards the residents, feelings of guilt may occur among staff, which may be an expression of stress of conscience. Although leadership has been described as crucial for staff’s work perceptions of stress as well as for person-centred practices, the influence of nursing home managers’ leadership on stress of conscience among staff and person-centred practices is still not fully explored. This study attempts to address that knowledge gap by exploring the relationship between leadership, person-centred care, and stress of conscience. Methods This study was based on a cross-sectional national survey of 2985 staff and their managers in 190 nursing homes throughout Sweden. Descriptive statistics and regression modelling were used to explore associations. Results Leadership was associated with a higher degree of person-centred care and less stress of conscience. A higher degree of person-centred care was also associated with less stress of conscience. The results also showed that leadership as well as person-centred care were individually associated with lower levels of stress of conscience when adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion Nursing home managers’ leadership was significantly associated with less staff stress of conscience and more person-centred care. This indicates that a leadership most prominently characterised by coaching and giving feedback, relying on staff and handling conflicts constructively, experimenting with new ideas, and controlling work individually can contribute to less staff stress as well as higher degree of person-centred care provision.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Reza Kalantari ◽  
Zahra Zamanian ◽  
Mehdi Hasanshahi ◽  
Seyed Aliakbar Faghihi ◽  
Jamshid Jamali ◽  

Background. Nontechnical skills are necessary for clinicians’ safe performance and prevention of errors in the operating room. Educational intervention is a useful way to improve these skills, which are a vital area for improvement. Circulating nurses are surgical team members whose work depends heavily on using nontechnical skills. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of an educational intervention on the improvement of circulating nurses’ nontechnical skills. Methods. This semiexperimental study was conducted on 300 circulating nurses divided into the intervention and no intervention groups each containing 150 participants. The nontechnical skills were assessed using the circulating practitioners’ list of nontechnical skills. Then, the intervention group received training regarding these skills, and the two groups were evaluated again. After all, the data were entered into the SPSS 24 software and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Furthermore, Kendall’s tau, independent sample t -test, and one-way ANOVA were used for assessment of relationship between median scores and demographics. Results. The results revealed a significant improvement in the scores of all domains of nontechnical skills in the intervention group ( p < 0.05 ). The highest and lowest improvements were observed in teamwork (42%) and situational awareness (16.7%), respectively. After the intervention, the scores of some of the behaviors were still below the average level or were not improved significantly. Conclusions. Circulating nurses’ nontechnical skills can be improved by educational interventions. However, regarding the low scores or no improvements in the scores of some behaviors, other intervention types such as policymaking and correcting the existing hierarchies in the operating room can be useful to complete the educational interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Wen Zheng ◽  
Xuemei Yan ◽  
Zeyao Zhao ◽  
Juan Yang ◽  
Hongjie Yu

Abstract Background China is facing substantial risks of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and a domestic resurgence in the long run, and COVID-19 vaccination is expected to be the long-lasting solution to end the pandemic. We aim to estimate the size of the target population for COVID-19 vaccination at the provincial level in the mainland of China, and summarize the current progress of vaccination programs, which could support local governments in the timely determination and adjustment of vaccination policies and promotional measures. Methods We conducted a descriptive study of the entire population in the mainland of China, between December 2020 and August 2021. By extracting provincial-stratified data from publicly available sources, we estimated the size of priority target groups for vaccination programs, and further characterized the ongoing vaccination program at the provincial level, including the total doses administered, the coverage rate, and the vaccination capacity needed to achieve the target coverage of 80% by the end of 2021. We used R (version 4.1.0) to complete the descriptive statistics. Results The size of the target population shows large differences among provinces, ranging from 3.4 million to 108.4 million. As of 31 August, 2021, the speed of vaccine roll-out differs considerably as well, with the highest coverage occurring in Beijing and Shanghai, where 88.5% and 79.1% of the population has been fully vaccinated, respectively. In 22 of 31 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs), more than 70% of the population was administered at least one dose by August. With the current vaccination capacity, the target of 80% coverage could be achieved by 2021 in 28 PLADs. Conclusions Disparities exist in the target population size and vaccination progress across provinces in the mainland of China. China has made great strides in the vaccination speed since roll-out, and could basically achieve the targeted vaccine coverage. Graphic Abstract

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