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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Santhilata Kuppili Venkata ◽  
Paul Young ◽  
Mark Bell ◽  
Alex Green

Digital transformation in government has brought an increase in the scale, variety, and complexity of records and greater levels of disorganised data. Current practices for selecting records for transfer to The National Archives (TNA) were developed to deal with paper records and are struggling to deal with this shift. This article examines the background to the problem and outlines a project that TNA undertook to research the feasibility of using commercially available artificial intelligence tools to aid selection. The project AI for Selection evaluated a range of commercial solutions varying from off-the-shelf products to cloud-hosted machine learning platforms, as well as a benchmarking tool developed in-house. Suitability of tools depended on several factors, including requirements and skills of transferring bodies as well as the tools’ usability and configurability. This article also explores questions around trust and explainability of decisions made when using AI for sensitive tasks such as selection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 100597
Maureen Snow Andrade ◽  
Letty Workman ◽  
Jonathan H. Westover

Bogyeong Lee ◽  
Hyunsoo Kim

Walking is the most basic means of transportation. Therefore, continuous management of the walking environment is very important. In particular, the identification of environmental barriers that can impede walkability is the first step in improving the pedestrian experience. Current practices for identifying environmental barriers (e.g., expert investigation and survey) are time-consuming and require additional human resources. Hence, we have developed a method to identify environmental barriers based on information entropy considering that every individual behaves differently in the presence of external stimuli. The behavioral data of the gait process were recorded for 64 participants using a wearable sensor. Additionally, the data were classified into seven gait types using two-step k-means clustering. It was observed that the classified gaits create a probability distribution for each location to calculate information entropy. The values of calculated information entropy showed a high correlation in the presence or absence of environmental barriers. The results obtained facilitated the continuous monitoring of environmental barriers generated in a walking environment.

2022 ◽  
Sara I. L. Pedersen ◽  
Jonathan N. Huxley ◽  
Chris D. Hudson ◽  
Martin J. Green ◽  
Nicholas J. Bell

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Juliana De Oliveira Mota ◽  
Pauline Kooh ◽  
Emmanuel Jaffrès ◽  
Hervé Prévost ◽  
Thomas Maignien ◽  

Food safety is a constant challenge for stakeholders in the food industry. To manage the likelihood of microbiological contamination, food safety management systems must be robust, including food and environmental testing. Environmental monitoring programs (EMP) have emerged this last decade aiming to validate cleaning–sanitation procedures and other environmental pathogen control programs. The need to monitor production environments has become evident because of recent foodborne outbreaks. However, the boundaries of environmental monitoring are not only limited to the management of pathogens but also extend to spoilage and hygiene indicators, microorganisms, allergens, and other hygiene monitoring. Surfaces in production environments can be a source of contamination, either through ineffective cleaning and disinfection procedures or through contamination during production by flows or operators. This study analyses the current practices of 37 French agri-food industries (small, medium, or large), reporting their objectives for EMPs, microbial targets, types, numbers and frequency of sampling, analysis of results, and types of corrective actions.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tahiru Alhassan ◽  
Samuel Banleman Biitir ◽  
Emmanuel Kanchebe Derbile

PurposeThe paper examined how local authorities have attempted to rate undeveloped land as a means of mobilising revenues and the challenges associated with implementing this policy guideline. It focused on current practices in terms of policy and administration, the availability of undeveloped urban land, its revenue potential, and ways to improve policy for local land taxation.Design/methodology/approachDrawing from the mixed-method approach both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Officials of the Wa Municipal Assembly, Lands Commission, Land Use and Spatial Planning Authority were purposely selected based on their knowledge and the roles they play in property rating practice. They were interviewed to understand their perceptions and views on rating undeveloped lands. Stratified proportionate and simple random sampling methods were used to select respondents. The respondents included land and landed property owners in three selected neighbourhoods.FindingsThe paper found that there was the prevalence of undeveloped lands mainly held by speculators and individuals constrained by financial challenges to develop their parcels. The Wa Municipal Assembly is unable to implement the policy guideline on charging rent on undeveloped lands due to lack of adequate information and generally unwillingness to implement this provision. Besides, the current guideline is too prohibitive and cannot be implemented in its current form. However, there is a window of opportunity for the Assembly to build data on undeveloped lands and moderately begin the implementation of the policy guideline.Practical implicationsUrban growth in Ghana is characterised by leapfrog development with many patches of undeveloped land in and around cities. The property taxation policies largely do not focus on undeveloped land or unimproved site value. In Ghana, property rate policy on the tax base excludes undeveloped land. However, government policy guidelines prescribe the charging of rent on these lands by local authorities. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion on the revenue potential of undeveloped urban land and why local government authorities have not been able to harness this potential. The paper has therefore recommended ways local authorities can use to mobilise revenue from undeveloped urban land.Originality/valueThere is limited research in rating undeveloped urban land especially looking at it from the perspective of policy and implementation as well as current practices. The paper shed light on the prevalence of undeveloped urban land and the guidelines that exist help local governments mobilise revenue from these lands. It contributes to the understanding that local government can harness the revenue potential of undeveloped land if policy design and implemented regarding these lands is enhanced. The paper also provides a good background and framework for further studies.

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