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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-112
Ijeoma Ngozi Ebenebe ◽  
Uduma Eke Osonwa ◽  
Chidimma Ruth Chukwunwejim ◽  
Ugonna Chinwe Morikwe ◽  
Joy Ogugua Igwe ◽  

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome characterized by a shift in the vaginal flora from a predominant population of Lactobacilli to a replacement with anaerobes. Vaginal suppositories containing L. pentosus KCA1 were formulated using glycerol-gelatin base. A prospective and follow-up community-based study was done. Vaginal samples were collected from women of reproductive age (non-pregnant) between 18-45 years. A total of 360 women both symptomatic and asymptomatic provided High Vaginal Swabs (HVS) for BV screening using Nugent scoring method and 65 (18.1 %) participants were identified as having BV by microscopy with 45 (12.5 %) of them being consistent with BV (Nugent score of 7-10) and twenty (5.56 %) being intermediate with BV (Nugent score of 4-6). A baseline and intervention questionnaire were administered to the participants. Majority (81.5 %) of the participants affirmed that they have not heard about BV. Social burden reveals that 90.8 % affirmed that they feel frustrated, having BV symptoms recur after treatment and 83.1 % admitted that BV symptoms makes them feel embarrassed, ashamed and dirty. Majority (58.8 %) claimed that the state of their reproductive health is ‘very good’ four weeks after treatment, while 88.2 % of the participants rated their reproductive health after four weeks of treatment to be ‘somewhat better than now than a year ago’. In conclusion, it was revealed that BV has impact on the social status and quality of life of the participants except on their economic status. Knowledge on the awareness of BV among women of reproductive age is essential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 713
Nur Alvira ◽  
Eka Silvia Saputri ◽  
Fajarina Lathu Asmarani ◽  
Rizky Erwanto ◽  
Venny Vidayanti

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Indonesia, the government also faces another health problem, namely dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The routine activities of the dengue management system have been significantly curtailed as government authorities concentrate more on containing the transmission of the COVID-19. This study aimed to describe vector control <em>Aedes sp.</em> during pandemic COVID-19, such as community activities in controlling breeding places, area risk, vector density and the determinant factors. This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey involving 136 households in the endemic area of Gondokusuman District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia using proportionate stratified random sampling. Data analysis was performed through simple and multiple logistic regression tests. Vector control for <em>Aedes sp.</em> breeding places during pandemic COVID-19 in the community are still low; the high level of vector density proves this based on House Index (HI): 44.1%, container index (CI): 57.4%, and Breteau Index (BI): 213.2%. This district is also at high risk to be the breeding places of <em>Aedes sp.</em> based on maya index (MI): 64.7%. The determinant factor that affects this condition is the lack of support by health workers/cadres during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (4) ◽  
pp. 988-996
I Made Darma OKA ◽  
Ni Gst Nym Suci MURNI ◽  
I Putu Sudhyana MECHA ◽  

This study aims to analyze the implementation of community-based tourism (CBT) at the tourist village in the local people’s perspective. The data were collected through observation, interview and library research. The key informant was local community who understands implementation of CBT at tourist village, with total 200 respondents. The result shows that the CBT has been well implemented at tourist village. The community perceives that, among the 20 statements mentioned in questionnaire, 2 items show that the local people’s perception is very good and 18 is good, meaning that CBT have economically, socially, culturally, environmentally, and politically contributed to them. The test result of the CFA shows that 5 factors have significantly contributed to the implementation of the CBT at tourist village. The result of each variable shows that 19 variables have contributed significantly, only one has not significantly contributed.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Lucy Yixuan Zhang ◽  
Kristen Simonds ◽  
June Matthews

PurposeThis study explored young males' suggestions for food skills education in three domains: food selection and planning, food preparation and food safety and storage. It also solicited young males' perspectives on mandatory food skills education.Design/methodology/approachThis descriptive qualitative study employed a semi-structured interview guide. A one-page list of food skills was provided to each participant to form a consistent basis for the interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method.FindingsForty-four young men aged 17 to 35 participated in the study. Thirty-seven supported mandatory education for food skills. Gender stereotypes around food skills were identified as a barrier to young males enrolling in elective food skills courses. When asked how food skills should be taught, the two main strategies mentioned were “online” and “hands-on.” Most participants identified skills in the food preparation domain as essential to include in the curriculum, although some recognized the importance of incorporating skills from all three domains.Practical implicationsUnderstanding important characteristics of effective food skills education for young males may increase their participation in school, virtual and community-based food skills education. Curricular content should consider young males' interests and baseline competencies and emphasize practical hands-on skills. Mandatory food skills education in secondary schools for all genders represents a comprehensive solution.Originality/valueThis study is among the first to report young males' opinions on crucial components of, and methods for, effective food skills education for this population.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105984052110438
Jacquelin Rankine ◽  
Lauren Goldberg ◽  
Elizabeth Miller ◽  
Lori Kelley ◽  
Kristin N. Ray

Chronic absenteeism is associated with poor health and educational outcomes. School nurses have great potential to address the health and educational needs that contribute to absenteeism. Through qualitative analysis of interviews with school nurses, we characterize their current role in reducing absenteeism and identify barriers 3 that limit their capacity to meet this goal, organized by the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice. Interviewees ( n = 23) identified actions perceived to reduce absenteeism aligned with domains of care coordination, leadership, quality improvement, and community and public health. Barriers perceived to limit the capacity of school nurses to address absenteeism were identified within these domains and ranged from student- and family-level to federal-level barriers. Specific healthcare system-level barriers included insufficient communication with community-based healthcare teams and the need for coordinated approaches across health and education sectors to address absenteeism. Strategic opportunities exist to address barriers to comprehensive school nursing practice and reduce absenteeism.

Anjali J. Forber-Pratt ◽  
Tanushree Sarkar

Research on teachers and inclusive education in India has largely been conducted using standardised, quantitative measures of teacher attitudes, efficacy and behaviour. There is little focus on teachers’ perspectives on their practice. Such findings promote a deficit view of teachers, recommending interventions to ‘correct’ teacher attitudes and behaviour, with little attention to institutional and policy contexts within which the teachers operate. The existing studies focus on what is absent or lacking, rather than what is possible. The present study attempts to offer a perspective of what is possible in inclusive education in the Indian context. The purpose of this intrinsic case study research is to better understand the inclusion of girls with disabilities in Kolkata, India, at a home and school for orphan girls. Non-institutionalised, inclusive, community-based care is rare in India, specifically for individuals with disabilities. The overall case study involved interviews ( N = 32) with students, teachers and staff, observations and document analysis, and this focuses on the n = 7 teacher interviews. All transcripts were analysed using structural and in vivo codes. These findings are centred on teacher voices and perspectives – identifying best practices, dilemmas and challenges. However, teacher perspectives are discussed within a larger school and institutional context. An important feature is the description of teachers’ inclusive practice as an iterative process, supported by feedback and input from the school leader. The findings highlight how the school provides and serves as a space of familial bonding, allowing teachers to challenge the views of educability, within the backdrop of a community that stigmatises disability. It is in this way that these teacher-centred voices demonstrate resilience in their teaching and conceptualisation of inclusion and disability.

Makenzie L. Barr ◽  
Kendra OoNorasak ◽  
Kristin Hughes ◽  
Lauren Batey ◽  
Kaela Jackson ◽  

Following rising unemployment rates and consequent loss of income due to COVID-19, many people have been seeking meal assistance. This study examines the impact of a community-based free meal distribution program during the pandemic in Kentucky, reviewing characteristics of recipients of the program. Demographics, health behaviors, food insecure classification, and rating of importance of the meal program were collected. Qualitative feedback on the impact of the program was collected via open response. Of the 92 participants using the meal service, the cohort was female, Black, 43 years of age (43.5 ± 15.0 years), with a household income under 30,000 USD before COVID, decreased income since COVID, and were food insecure. Recipients rated the importance of the service as 8.7 ± 1.8 (of 10), and those with children indicated the importance as 4.2 ± 1.1 (of 5). Qualitative data on program importance highlighted four response categories including “changed habits”, “mental wellbeing”, “provided resources”, and “other”. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals have struggled. Meal assistance programs are a fundamental asset in the community that have seen marketed demand since COVID-19. Collaboration with, and evaluation of, meal assistance programs can be valuable for continued programmatic funding support.

Murali Lingala ◽  
Sneha Simon ◽  
Bhagath . ◽  
Kavitha .

Background: Tobacco kills approximately 1 million people annually in India and is responsible for almost half of all cancers in men and quarter of all cancers in women. Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is one such form that is culturally and socially acceptable by women especially in rural India. The study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption among women, prevalence of exposure to second hand smoke and to determine the factors associated with it.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among 190 women in the rural field practice area of department of community medicine of Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal during the period of October 2019 to December 2019. Data was collected using simple random sampling. A semi structured questionnaire was prepared with the help of global adult tobacco survey proforma. The data was analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) 20.00.Results: Prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption was 57% and the most common form of tobacco being consumed was tobacco with pan (40.3%). The prevalence of exposure to second hand smoke at home was 61%. The most common reason for initiation was peer pressure. High prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was seen in unemployed and illiterate women.Conclusions: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption is higher among women in this study and this indicates the lack of awareness and the need for better strategies to reduce the burden.

2021 ◽  
Koen B. Pouwels ◽  
Emma Pritchard ◽  
Philippa C. Matthews ◽  
Nicole Stoesser ◽  
David W. Eyre ◽  

AbstractThe effectiveness of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines against new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections requires continuous re-evaluation, given the increasingly dominant B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of these vaccines in a large, community-based survey of randomly selected households across the United Kingdom. We found that the effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 against infections (new polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases) with symptoms or high viral burden is reduced with the B.1.617.2 variant (absolute difference of 10–13% for BNT162b2 and 16% for ChAdOx1) compared to the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant. The effectiveness of two doses remains at least as great as protection afforded by prior natural infection. The dynamics of immunity after second doses differed significantly between BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1, with greater initial effectiveness against new PCR-positive cases but faster declines in protection against high viral burden and symptomatic infection with BNT162b2. There was no evidence that effectiveness varied by dosing interval, but protection was higher in vaccinated individuals after a prior infection and in younger adults. With B.1.617.2, infections occurring after two vaccinations had similar peak viral burden as those in unvaccinated individuals. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination still reduces new infections, but effectiveness and attenuation of peak viral burden are reduced with B.1.617.2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Tesfaye Guja ◽  
Yabsira Melaku ◽  
Eshetu Andarge

Meeting minimum standards of dietary quality in mothers and children is a challenge in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Emerging evidence suggests that maternal and child dietary diversity is associated, but little is known about the associated factors of concordance of mother-child dietary diversity in Ethiopia and none is documented in the study area. This study examines the concordance between mother-child (6–23 months) dyads dietary diversity and the associated factors in Kucha District, Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 791 mother-child (6–23 months) pairs from 11 selected kebeles on March 6 to April 13, 2017. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. The sampling frame was obtained from the family folder of health posts in each kebele. The mother-child pairs were selected by the simple random sampling method. The 7 food groups of the World Health Organization (WHO) for children and the 10 food groups of FANTA/FAO 2016 for mothers were used to analyze the dietary diversity. Cohen’s kappa statistics was calculated to see the strength of concordance. The multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to determine factors affecting mother-child dietary diversity concordance. A good concordance was noted between mother-child dietary diversity scores (Kappa = 0.43). Only 56 (7.1%) mothers were negative deviants, and 133 (16.8%) mothers were positive deviants in dietary diversity consumption. Rural residence (AOR = 3.49; 95% CI: 1.90–6.41), having no formal education (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.08–3.05), not owning milking cow (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.10–2.56), children with low dietary diversity (AOR = 8.23; 95% CI: 5.17–13.08), and mothers with low dietary diversity (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.29–0.74) were found to be factors associated with mother-child dietary diversity concordance. An increase in the percentage of children reaching the minimum dietary diversity was greater with a successive increase in maternal dietary diversity. Despite interesting similarities between mothers and children dietary consumption, more than three-quarters of concordants did not achieve the recommended dietary diversity score (were low concordants). Interventions targeting on rural women’s access to high school education, home-based milking cow rearing, and promoting nutrition-sensitive agriculture to meet the dietary requirements of mothers and children in a sustainable manner and public health efforts to improve child nutrition may be strengthened by promoting maternal dietary diversity due to its potential effect on the entire family.

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