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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 100597
Maureen Snow Andrade ◽  
Letty Workman ◽  
Jonathan H. Westover

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-86
Fatemeh Mahboobifard ◽  
Maryam Rahmati ◽  
Mina Amiri ◽  
Fereidoun Azizi ◽  
Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

2022 ◽  
Vol 97 ◽  
pp. 56-61
Zhenxu Xiao ◽  
Xue Ren ◽  
Qianhua Zhao ◽  
Wanqing Wu ◽  
Xiaoniu Liang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rebecca Langford ◽  
Alisha Davies ◽  
Laura Howe ◽  
Christie Cabral

Abstract Background Educational attainment is a key social determinant of health. Health and education are linked by multiple pathways, many of which are not well understood. One such pathway is the association between being above a healthy weight and lower academic achievement. While various explanations have been put forward to explain this relationship, evidence for causal pathways is sparse and unclear. This study addresses that evidence gap. Methods We interviewed 19 adults (late 20s; 14 female, 5 male) and one young person (14 years, male) from the UK in 2019/2020. Participants were recruited from the ALSPAC 1990s birth cohort, sampled to ensure diversity in socio-economic status and educational attainment, and a community-based weight management group for young people. Interviews focused on experiences of being above a healthy weight during secondary school and how this may have affected their learning and achievement. Interviews were face-to-face, digitally recorded, and transcribed verbatim. We analysed the data thematically. Results We identified key pathways through which higher body weight may negatively impact educational performance and showed how these are linked within a novel theoretical model. Because larger body size is highly stigmatised, participants engaged in different strategies to minimise their exposure to negative attention. Participants sought to increase their social acceptance or become less socially visible (or a combination of both). A minority navigated this successfully; they often had many friends (or the ‘right’ friends), experienced little or no bullying at school and weight appeared to have little effect on their achievement at school. For most however, the behaviours resulting from these strategies (e.g. disruptive behaviour, truanting, not working hard) or the physical, social or mental impacts of their school experiences (e.g. hungry, tired, self-conscious, depressed) made it difficult to concentrate and/or participate in class, which in turn affected how teachers viewed them. Conclusions Action to combat weight stigma, both within schools and in wider society, is urgently required to help address these educational disparities that in turn can impact health in later life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Emily Schulz ◽  
Debarchana Ghosh ◽  
Eddie M Clark ◽  
Beverly R Williams ◽  
Randi Williams ◽  

2022 ◽  
Astghik Sargsyan ◽  
Philipp Wegner ◽  
Stephan Gebel ◽  
Shounak Baksi ◽  
Geena Mariya Jose ◽  

Abstract Motivation: Epilepsy is a multi-faceted complex disorder that requires a precise understanding of the classification, diagnosis, treatment, and disease mechanism governing it. Although scattered resources are available on epilepsy, comprehensive and structured knowledge is missing. In contemplation to promote multidisciplinary knowledge exchange and facilitate advancement in clinical management, especially in pre-clinical research, a disease-specific ontology is necessary. The presented ontology is designed to enable better interconnection between scientific community members in the epilepsy domain.Results: The Epilepsy Ontology (EPIO) is an assembly of structured knowledge on various aspects of epilepsy, developed according to Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry principles. Concepts and definitions are collected from the latest International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification, domain-specific ontologies, and scientific literature. This ontology consists of 1,879 classes and 28,151 axioms (2,171 declaration axioms, 2,219 logical axioms) from several aspects of epilepsy. This ontology is intended to be used for data management and text mining purposes.

Van M. Ta Park ◽  
Marcelle M. Dougan ◽  
Oanh L. Meyer ◽  
Bora Nam ◽  
Marian Tzuang ◽  

Reports of escalated discrimination among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) due to COVID-19 are alarming, making this a public health priority. However, there are limited empirical studies on the scope and impact of COVID-19-related discrimination among AAPIs. Using the COVID-19 Effects on the Mental and Physical Health of AAPI Survey Study (COMPASS) data (N = 4971; survey period: October 2020–February 2021), which is a U.S.-wide multi-lingual survey, we examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with discrimination experiences attributable to being an AAPI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, 60.7% reported experiencing discrimination; the group prevalence ranged from 80.0% (Hmong) to 40.5% (Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders). Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that COVID-19-related factors were associated with many discrimination experiences: having a shelter-in-place order of ≥1 month, living in areas with perceived similar/higher COVID-19 severity, and negative impact in family income/employment due to COVID-19. Additionally, being Asian American (versus Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders), females, non-heterosexuals, younger, more severe effect on family income, living in the non-West, and poorer health were significantly correlated with discrimination experiences. Findings may assist in formulating anti-AAPI-discrimination policies and programs at the local, state, and federal levels. Culturally appropriate programs and policies to combat this are urgently needed.

2022 ◽  
Nicholas Josiah Ens ◽  
Bronwyn Harvey ◽  
Morgan M. Davies ◽  
Hanna M. Thomson ◽  
Keegan J. Meyers ◽  

The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), native to northwestern Europe and Africa, is among the top 100 most damaging invasive species globally. In some regions, including the Atlantic coast of North America, C. maenas has caused long-term degradation of eelgrass habitats and bivalve, crab, and finfish populations, while areas are near the beginning of the invasion cycle. Due to high persistence and reproductive potential of C. maenas populations, most local and regional mitigation efforts no longer strive for extirpation and instead focus on population control. Long-term monitoring and rapid response protocols can facilitate early detection of introductions that is critical to inform management decisions related to green crab control or extirpation. Once C. maenas are detected, local area managers will need to decide on management actions, including whether and what green crab control measures will be implemented, if local invasion might be prevented or extirpated, and if population reduction to achieve functional eradication is achievable. Due to the immense operational demands likely required to extirpate C. maenas populations, combined with limited resources for monitoring and removal, it is unlikely that any single government, conservation and/or academic organization would be positioned to adequately control or extirpate populations in local areas, highlighting the importance of collaborative efforts. Community-based monitoring, and emerging methods such as environmental DNA (eDNA), may help expand the spatial and temporal extent of monitoring, facilitating early detection and removal of C. maenas. While several C. maenas removal programs have succeeded in reducing their populations, to our knowledge, no program has yet successfully extirpated the invader; and the cost of any such program would likely be immense and unsustainable over the long-term. An alternative approach is functional eradication, whereby C. maenas populations are reduced below threshold levels such that ecosystem impacts are minimized. Less funding and effort would likely be required to achieve and maintain functional eradication compared to extirpation. In either case, continual control efforts will be required as C. maenas populations can quickly increase from low densities and larval re-introductions.

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