Carbon Sequestration
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13310
Lei Hao ◽  
Shan Wang ◽  
Xiuping Cui ◽  
Yongguang Zhai

Understanding vegetation dynamics and their responses to climate change are essential to enhance the carbon sequestration of the terrestrial ecosystem under global warming. Although some studies have identified that there is a close relationship between vegetation net primary productivity and climate change, it is unclear whether this response exists in ecologically fragile areas, especially in Inner Mongolia, in which multiple ecological ecotones are related to vegetation types. This study uses the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach (CASA) model to estimate vegetation NPP in Inner Mongolia from 2002 to 2019 and focuses on the spatial and temporal changes of NPP of different vegetation types and their responses to three typical climate factors: precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation. The results show that the NPP estimated by the CASA model agrees well with the observed NPP (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.001). The vegetation NPP in Inner Mongolia decreases gradually from northeast to southwest, and the average NPP is 223.50 gC ∙ m−2. From 2002 to 2019, the NPP of all vegetation types trended upward, but exhibiting different rates. The vegetation types, ranked in order of decreasing NPP, are forest, cropland, grassland, and desert. The NPP response of different vegetation types to climate factors possesses significant differences. The cropland NPP and grassland NPP are mainly affected by precipitation, the desert NPP is controlled by both precipitation and solar radiation, and the forest NPP is determined by all three climate factors.

2021 ◽  
Jade Holliman ◽  
Herbert Schaef ◽  
Quin Miller ◽  
Jake Horner ◽  
Bernard McGrail ◽  

Moritz Laub ◽  
Samuel Schlichenmeier ◽  
Patma Vityakon ◽  
Georg Cadisch

AbstractSoil aggregates store most soil organic carbon (SOC), but how does litter quality influence their formation? We hypothesized varying litter quality to facilitate differences in aggregate formation by altering the seasonal development of microbial biomass (MB) C and N, with MB driving  aggregate development in a tropical sandy soil in Thailand. Aggregate development was studied in a long-term fallow experiment, receiving 10 Mg ha−1 annual applications of rice (Oryza sativa) straw (low N and polyphenols (PP)), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) stover (high N, low PP), tamarind (Tamarindus indica) litter (medium N and PP), or dipterocarp (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus) leaf litter (low N, high PP) compared to a control. N-rich litter from groundnut and tamarind led to significantly higher MB, bulk soil C and aggregate C than dipterocarp, rice straw, and the control. Bulk soil C and small macroaggregates C of N-rich litter treatments increased about 7% in 30 weeks. Increasing MB N explained increasing small macroaggregate C and both, MB C or N were important covariates explaining temporal variations of C stored in the microaggregates, in silt and clay. MB also explained temporal variations of aggregate fraction weights. With time, SMA C only increased in the N-rich groundnut and tamarind treatments, but decreased in other treatments. Connections of MB to aggregate C and weight substantiated the importance of microbial activity for aggregate formation and carbon sequestration. By promoting MB for longest time spans, medium-quality tamarind could best facilitate aggregate formation, and increase silt and clay C.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13061
Ravindra Prasad ◽  
Sanjay Kumar Gupta ◽  
Nisha Shabnam ◽  
Carlos Yure B. Oliveira ◽  
Arvind Kumar Nema ◽  

The rising concentration of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has severely affected our planet’s homeostasis. Efforts are being made worldwide to curb carbon dioxide emissions, but there is still no strategy or technology available to date that is widely accepted. Two basic strategies are employed for reducing CO2 emissions, viz. (i) a decrease in fossil fuel use, and increased use of renewable energy sources; and (ii) carbon sequestration by various biological, chemical, or physical methods. This review has explored microalgae’s role in carbon sequestration, the physiological apparatus, with special emphasis on the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM). A CCM is a specialized mechanism of microalgae. In this process, a sub-cellular organelle known as pyrenoid, containing a high concentration of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), helps in the fixation of CO2. One type of carbon concentration mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the association of pyrenoid tubules with thylakoids membrane is represented through a typical graphical model. Various environmental factors influencing carbon sequestration in microalgae and associated techno-economic challenges are analyzed critically.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1297
Ying Xu ◽  
Lei Yao

Land use plays a crucial role in climate change adaptation and mitigation, as the reasonable design of land use distribution can positively impact these things. Therefore, research interest in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in land use and management has been growing. However, the adaptation and mitigation strategies have been handled separately at different dimensions and spatial levels. In this study, we presented a modeling framework for land use optimization that integrates climate change adaptation and mitigation, developed the model, and then applied it to Huailai County, wherein environmental and socioeconomic conditions are sensitive to climate change. The regional land use optimization model was combined with a linear programming model and a modified cellular automata model. Subsequently, the climate change adaptation and mitigation constraints, including ecological water demand, spatial suitability, and carbon sequestration, were incorporated into the model. The results indicate that most regions in the study area could adapt to and mitigate climate change with a constant land use pattern, and the land use conversion region under different climate change scenarios was primarily located in the topography transition region. The optimization results also reveal trade-offs between climate change adaptation and mitigation that were manifested with an increase in carbon sequestration and ecological water demand accompanied by decreases in the net income of agricultural production. Thus, it is necessary to simultaneously incorporate climate change adaptation and mitigation into land use optimization and management, and the proposed model provides a feasible method to incorporate them and balance their trade-offs in land use pattern optimization at a regional scale.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13060
Bohwi Lee

Bamboo is a widely used natural resource, yet it cannot be managed sustainably without considering its social and environmental potentials. This study compared and evaluated the difference in demands and values of two stakeholder groups (local community and forestry experts) toward various ecosystem services for local bamboo forests and suggested interventions for decision-makers in Laos. This study selected six provisioning, five regulating, two cultural, and two habitat services and evaluated each group for its public perception of and priorities for bamboo forests using a 4-point Likert scale and 100 preference points. Both groups showed higher perceptions and priorities for provisioning and cultural services, which are helpful for sustaining livelihoods. The perceptions and priorities of the community group concerning regulating services (e.g., natural hazard regulation, water purification, and fresh air regulation) to improve crop production were higher than those of the expert group, but regarding the carbon sequestration, the expert group scored higher. Carbon sequestration, a public good provided on a large scale, could be perceived when there is a high level of understanding and interest in bamboo forests through environmental education. In habitat services, there was no significant difference between the groups. Experts should actively consider these differences in demands and public perception when making decisions about bamboo management to promote services that villagers have difficulty perceiving and draw intervention points accordingly in national policies for bamboo resources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 128 ◽  
pp. 45-55
Florian Thomas Payen ◽  
Dominic Moran ◽  
Jean-Yves Cahurel ◽  
Matthew Aitkenhead ◽  
Peter Alexander ◽  

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