snow cover
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Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 410 ◽  
pp. 115661
Hyoun Soo Lim ◽  
Hyun-Cheol Kim ◽  
Ok-Sun Kim ◽  
Hyejung Jung ◽  
Jeonghoon Lee ◽  

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Raqeeb ◽  
A. Saleem ◽  
L. Ansari ◽  
S. M. Nazami ◽  
M. W. Muhammad ◽  

Abstract Land use and land cover change are affecting the global environment and ecosystems of the different biospheres. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of these changes is of utmost importance as they often results in several global environmental consequences such as land degradation, mass erosion, habitat deterioration as well as micro and macro climate of the regions. The advance technologies like remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) are helpful in determining/ identifying these changes. In the current study area, changes in carbon stocks, notably in forest areas, are resulting in considerable dynamics of carbon stocks as a result of climate change and carbon sequestration. This study was carried out in the Diamer district of the Gilgit Baltistan (GB) Pakistan to investigate the change in cover change/land use change (particularly Forest Land use) as well as carbon sequestration potential of the forests in the district during almost last 25years. The land cover, temporal Landsat data (level 1, LIT) were downloaded from the USGS EROS (2016), for 1979-1989, 1990-2000 and 2001-2012. Change in land uses, particularly forest cover was investigated using GIS techniques. Forest inventory was carried out using random sampling techniques. A standard plot of size 0.1 ha (n=80) was laid out to determine the tree density, volume, biomass and C stocks. Simulation of C stocks was accomplished by application of the CO2FIX model with the data input from inventory. Results showed a decrease in both forest and snow cover in the region from 1979-2012. Similarly decrease was seen in tree volume, tree Biomass, dynamics of C Stocks and decrease was in occur tree density respectively. It is recommended we need further more like project such as BTAP (Billion Tree Afforestation Project) and green Pakistan project to increase the forest cover, to control on land use change, protect forest ecosystem and to protect snow cover.

2022 ◽  
Vol 807 ◽  
pp. 150397
Fan Zhang ◽  
Lijuan Zhang ◽  
Mingxi Pan ◽  
Xinyue Zhong ◽  
Enbo Zhao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 127-142
Georg Lackner ◽  
Florent Domine ◽  
Daniel F. Nadeau ◽  
Annie-Claude Parent ◽  
François Anctil ◽  

Abstract. Arctic landscapes are covered in snow for at least 6 months of the year. The energy balance of the snow cover plays a key role in these environments, influencing the surface albedo, the thermal regime of the permafrost, and other factors. Our goal is to quantify all major heat fluxes above, within, and below a low-Arctic snowpack at a shrub tundra site on the east coast of Hudson Bay in eastern Canada. The study is based on observations from a flux tower that uses the eddy covariance approach and from profiles of temperature and thermal conductivity in the snow and soil. Additionally, we compared the observations with simulations produced using the Crocus snow model. We found that radiative losses due to negative longwave radiation are mostly counterbalanced by the sensible heat flux, whereas the latent heat flux is minimal. At the snow surface, the heat flux into the snow is similar in magnitude to the sensible heat flux. Because the snow cover stores very little heat, the majority of the upward heat flux in the snow is used to cool the soil. Overall, the model was able to reproduce the observed energy balance, but due to the effects of atmospheric stratification, it showed some deficiencies when simulating turbulent heat fluxes at an hourly timescale.

2022 ◽  
Lena Katharina Schmidt ◽  
Till Francke ◽  
Erwin Rottler ◽  
Theresa Blume ◽  
Johannes Schöber ◽  

Abstract. Climatic changes are expected to fundamentally alter discharge and sediment dynamics in glaciated high alpine areas, e.g. through glacier retreat, prolonged snow-free periods and more frequent intense rainfall events in summer. However, how exactly these hydrological changes will affect sediment dynamics is not yet known. In the present study, we aim to pinpoint areas and processes most relevant to recent sediment and discharge dynamics on different spatial and temporal scales in the Ötztal Alpine Region in Tyrol, Austria. Therefore, we analyze observed discharge and relatively long suspended sediment time series of up to 15 years from three gauges in a nested catchment setup. The catchments range from 100 to almost 800 km2 in size with 10 to 30 % glacier cover and span an elevation range of 930 to 3772 m a.s.l.. The investigation of satellite-based snow cover maps, glacier inventories, mass balances and precipitation data complement the analysis. Our results indicate that mean annual specific discharge and suspended sediment fluxes are highest in the most glaciated sub-catchment and both fluxes correlate significantly with annual glacier mass balances. Furthermore, both discharge and suspended sediment loads show a distinct seasonality with low values during winter and high values during summer. However, the spring onset of sediment transport is almost synchronous at the three gauges, contrary to the spring rise in discharge, which occurs earlier further downstream. A spatio-temporal analysis of snow cover evolution indicates that the spring increase in sediment fluxes at all gauges coincides with the onset of snow melt above 2500 m elevation. Zones above this elevation include glacier tongues and recently deglaciated areas, which seem to be crucial for the sediment dynamics in the catchment. Precipitation events in summer were associated with peak sediment concentrations and fluxes, but on average accounted for only 21 % of the annual sediment yields of the years 2011 to 2020. We conclude that glaciers and the areas above 2500 m elevation play a dominant role for discharge and sediment dynamics in the Ötztal area, while precipitation events play a secondary role. Our study extends the scientific knowledge on current hydro-sedimentological changes in glaciated high alpine areas and provides a baseline for investigations on projected future changes in hydro-sedimentological system dynamics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Tatiana V. Noskova ◽  
Olga V. Lovtskaya ◽  
Maria S. Panina ◽  
Daria P. Podchufarova ◽  
Tatyana S. Papina

Abstract This paper presents the results of studying the contents of total (TOC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon in atmospheric precipitation and their deposition fluxes on the territory of the city of Barnaul. Samples of atmospheric precipitation (rain and snow) were collected from May 2016 to December 2020 in the city center, additionally at the end of winter 2018–2019 samples of snow cover were taken in the territory of the city and its environs. The studies showed a significant content of organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric precipitation: the weighted average concentrations for the study period were 7.2 ± 0.6 and 4.2 ± 0.4 mg/L for TOC and DOC, respectively. The annual flux of OC deposition with atmospheric precipitation on the territory of Barnaul over the past three years has varied within 2.4–3.9 t/km2 for TOC and 1.4–2.1 t/km2 for DOC. To visualize the spatial distribution of organic matter over the territory of Barnaul, simple kriging was used, implemented in the Geostatistical Analyst module (ArcGIS® Desktop). The flow of organic carbon input into the snow cover during the winter period was used as data for the geostatistical model. According to the model, the deposition of OC from the atmosphere occurs unevenly throughout the urban area and depends on the location and intensity of pollution sources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 625
Tatyana Papina ◽  
Alla Eirikh ◽  
Tatiana Noskova

Stable water isotopes in snowpack and snowfalls are widely used for understanding hydrological processes occurring in the seasonally snow-covered territories. The present study examines the main factors influencing changes of the initial stable water isotopes composition in the seasonal snow cover of the south of Western Siberia. Studies of the isotopic composition of snow precipitation and snow cover, as well as experiments with them, were carried out during two cold seasons of 2019–2021, and laser spectroscopy PICARRO L2130-i (WS-CRDS) was used for the determination of water isotope composition (δ18O and δD). The main changes in the isotopic composition of the snow cover layers in the studied region are associated with the existence of a vertical temperature gradient between the layers and with the penetration of soil moisture into the bottom layers in the absence of soil freezing. During the winter period, the sublimation from the top layer of snow is observed only at the moments of a sharp increase in the daily air temperature. At the end of winter, the contrast between day and night air temperatures determines the direction of the shift in the isotopic composition of the top layer of snow relative to the initial snow precipitation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 262
Hui Guo ◽  
Xiaoyan Wang ◽  
Zecheng Guo ◽  
Siyong Chen

Snow cover is an important water source and even an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Assessing snow phenology and its driving factors in Northeast China will help with comprehensively understanding the role of snow cover in regional water cycle and climate change. This study presents spatiotemporal variations in snow phenology and the relative importance of potential drivers, including climate, geography, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), based on the MODIS snow products across Northeast China from 2001 to 2018. The results indicated that the snow cover days (SCD), snow cover onset dates (SCOD) and snow cover end dates (SCED) all showed obvious latitudinal distribution characteristics. As the latitude gradually increases, SCD becomes longer, SCOD advances and SCED delays. Overall, there is a growing tendency in SCD and a delayed trend in SCED across time. The variations in snow phenology were driven by mean temperature, followed by latitude, while precipitation, aspect and slope all had little effect on the SCD, SCOD and SCED. With decreasing temperature, the SCD and SCED showed upward trends. The mean temperature has negatively correlation with SCD and SCED and positively correlation with SCOD. With increasing latitude, the change rate of the SCD, SCOD and SCED in the whole Northeast China were 10.20 d/degree, −3.82 d/degree and 5.41 d/degree, respectively, and the change rate of snow phenology in forested areas was lower than that in nonforested areas. At the same latitude, the snow phenology for different underlying surfaces varied greatly. The correlations between the snow phenology and NDVI were mainly positive, but weak correlations accounted for a large proportion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 269-278
Chang Liu ◽  
Zhen Li ◽  
Ping Zhang ◽  
Zhipeng Wu

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