Southwestern Nigeria
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2021 ◽  
Olugbenga John Owojori ◽  
Michael Awodiran ◽  
Oluwadunsin Ajana ◽  
Olukayode Jegede

Abstract Snails are an important link in the transfer of contaminants, especially metals in the food chain. Yet, few studies have examined the toxicity and accumulation of metals in snails in the tropics. This study assessed the toxicity and accumulation of two non-essential metals (cadmium and lead) to the tropical snail Archachatina papyracea. Specimens of the snail A. papyracea were exposed in a loamy soil collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria and spiked with varying concentrations of Cd and Pb over 28 days. Survival and weight change of snails were monitored weekly while tissue accumulation was assessed at the end of the 28-day period. Survival was a more sensitive endpoint than the weight change of snails. The Cd median lethal concentration (LC50) value was 93 ± 4.4 mg/kg, while the median effect concentration (EC50) for snail weight change was 131 ± 41mg/kg. For Pb, LC50 value was 1121 ± 457 mg/kg while the EC50 value for weight change was higher at 4541 ± 1180 mg/kg. Therefore, Cd was a factor of about 10 to 30 more toxic than Pb, consistent with findings on the relative toxicity of Cd and Pb to other soil organisms, including earthworms, springtails, and mites. Although not included initially as an endpoint, egg production in the snails decreased with increasing Cd and Pb concentrations in the substrate. Metal analysis of the foot and visceral mass of surviving snails showed progressive accumulation of Cd and Pb as concentration increased, showing the tendency to use body residue of A. papyracea as an indicator of metal pollution. It further suggests the role of this snail species in above-ground metal transfer in the food chain and highlights the potential danger for human consumption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-125
GA Ali ◽  
TA Ademiju ◽  
JA Osunbitan

This study was carried out to determine the crop water and irrigation requirement of some selected crops in southwestern Nigeria. The crops are cucumber, water melon, maize, groundnut, eggplant and tomato. Irrigation requirement and crop coefficient for each crops were determined from the interrelationships of the evapotranspiration, soil type, bulk density, field capacity and the effective root zone of the crops at the selected locations using CROPWAT for windows version 8. Soil parameters used for analysis were determined from laboratory experiment. The crop evapotranspiration and water requirement for cucumber varied from 2.52 to 7.21mm/day and 17 to 73.2mm/dec, respectively, for maize from 1.36 to 6.35mm/day and 5.1 to 63.5mm/dec respectively, for watermelon varied from 2.59 to 6.67mm/day and 25.9 to 73.3mm/dec respectively, for eggplant varied from 1.92 to 6.35 mm/day and 15.9 to 64.4mm/dec respectively. The irrigation requirement for water melon and cucumber recorded the highest value of 461.6 and 497.4mm/dec respectively, an indication that the two crops require more water for physiological activities. The reduction in the values of crop coefficient was observed during the study which could be attributed to the reduction in evapotranspiration at the late stage of growth. The findings also showed that known quantities of irrigation water could be used in producing crops optimally.

2021 ◽  
Julius Olaoye Faluyi ◽  
Joshua Olumide Matthew ◽  
Sekinat Okiki Azeez

Abstract This study was initiated to restore the genetic resources of yam which had been decimated in a core yam-producing community in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Twenty cultivars, consisting of Dioscorea rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. alata, and D. dumetorum were identified, collected, characterized and multiplied using an On-farm Participatory Method. The yam cultivars were characterized for quality and yield of pounded yam (iyan) as well as starch properties. They were later conserved in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife.Morphological characterization separated Dioscorea alata (Ewura) by its winged vines while Dioscorea dumetorum (Esuru) was separated by its pubescent spines, trifoliate leaf with acute apex and base and the clustered, irregularly-shaped tuber. All the tubers of the yam cultivars had high storability. Pounded yam quality rated the Ikumo and Ajimokun cultivars as best while Odo was rated average and this was attributed to the swelling properties and amylose content of these cultivars. Yam cultivars with high granules had low swelling capacities. The Brittle Fraction Index of the starch from all the cultivars was lower than 1.0 explaining why the iyan they produced had no crust on the surface and kept for long hours after preparation.From this study, it was concluded that the local yam cultivars collected represent the core of yam genetic resources for utilization in the region. These cultivars are therefore recommended for prioritization in further studies on propagation, conservation and improvement so that a narrow genetic base of cultivars is not encouraged, for example, by promoting cultivars whose vines perform well in tuberization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 229-229
Sodiq Oladipo ◽  
Khadeejah Kareem-Ibrahim ◽  
Olatunji T Abanikannda

Abstract Poultry production as an aspect of livestock production is important to the biological needs, economic and social development of the people in any nation. Broiler birds are specifically bred for rapid growth to attain mature body size within 7–10 weeks depending on the strain, sex and management. This study was carried out in the humid tropics of Southwestern Nigeria. The experimental units were derived from four commercial broiler breeds namely Arbor Acre, Cobb, Marshall and Ross. Each breed had 76 chicks totaling 304 across the four breeds. On arrival, each chick was tagged by breed and identification number, and the initial weight of the chicks were recorded. Each of the breeds were thereafter randomly selected and randomly assigned to four experimental plots as replicates of the same treatment. The broiler birds were reared for 10 weeks and their weight taken and recorded at weekly intervals. All statistical analyses were conducted using boxplot, descriptive statistic and general linear models of Minitab® 16. After exploratory analysis to check for normality and outliers, a total of 217 birds were used in the final analyses. Except for the Marshall breed that had a highly significantly (P < 0.01) lower weight at hatching, other breeds had fairly similar weight (Table 1). However, there was no statistical (P > 0.05) difference in mean initial weight across the four replicates. While breed alone accounted for 37.81% of the total variation in initial weight, it only accounted for 30.07% of the difference in weight gain. The effect of breed on weight gain was only significant (P < 0.01) in Marshall, while the other three breeds were not statistically different (P >0.05). It can be deduced from this study that performance in terms of weight gain of most of the commercially available breeds in Nigeria are similar with the exception of Marshall.

O.A. Ayodeji

Teaching spaces are needed for direct or physical contact between lecturers and students. The degree of students’ satisfaction with teaching facilities and services provided in our universities are likely to influence their academic performance. This study examined the factors influencing students’ satisfaction with learning spaces in Osun State University, Osun State, Nigeria. A sample size of 591 respondents drawn from 300 level and 400 level in the College of Science, Engineering and Technology (Osogbo Campus) and the College of Management and Social Science (Okuku Campus) were sampled through a structured questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale using a random cluster sampling technique. The results revealed that students were very satisfied with the spatial and physical configurations of the teaching spaces. Attitude to learning and students’ subject understanding were highly and positively related to students’ satisfaction, their respective values were 0.751 and 0.721. The paper concluded with suggestions on how students’ satisfaction can be improved by providing facilities that will enable electronic teaching and learning.

Olawale Arogundade ◽  
Joshua O. Matthew ◽  
Olusanya Olatunji ◽  
Taiye H. Aliyu ◽  
P. Lava Kumar

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Nathaniel Ayinde Olatunde ◽  
Imoleayo Abraham Awodele ◽  
Henry Agboola Odeyinka

PurposeThe purpose of the study is to examine the stakeholder identification (SI) methods used in building projects procured by private corporate organisations in Southwestern Nigeria to draw a correlation between methods used for SI and project performance in the study area, thereby enhancing project performance.Design/methodology/approachThe study used a census survey to purposively select 30 projects managers (who indicated from a first-stage questionnaire) that they have participated in structured stakeholder management (SM) from a list of 106 project managers and client representatives who have been involved in SM of building projects procured by private corporate organisations between 2008 and 2017 in the study area. A second-stage questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the respondents. The quantitative data that were collected were analysed using mean score (MS) analysis and Analysis of variance (ANOVA).FindingsThe study found that brainstorming in group meetings (MS = 4.33), interviews with the expert (MS = 3.20) and identification by other stakeholders (MS = 3.00) are the most frequently used SI methods in the study area. It was also found that the use of a questionnaire (MS = 0.87), Delphi method (MS = 0.80) and public hearing (MS = 0.57) was rare for SI in the study area. A further result showed that there was no significant difference in the opinion of project managers on 85% of methods used for SI in the study area irrespective of the procurement method employed.Practical implicationsThe study examined the methods project managers used for SI on building projects procured by private corporate organisations to advocate for more robust and all-inclusive SI methods.Originality/valueThe study empirically examined methods used for SI and correlated them to project performance.

Christiana A. Oluwamotemi ◽  
Olumide E. Olajide ◽  
Elizabeth R. Edoni ◽  
Chidinma Emma Ukoha ◽  
Ademola L. Adelekan

Aims: The study explored the socio-environmental factors as determinants of the emotional well-being of adolescents in foster homes in southwestern Nigeria. Study Design: A descriptive survey research of ex-post-facto type was employed. Place and Duration of Study: Foster homes in six states in southwestern Nigeria.  Methodology: multi-stage sampling was used in selecting 555 respondents for this study and the data collection was done using a semi-structured questionnaire and data analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The study revealed that peer influence, academic performance and attitude of the foster family were significant to emotional wellbeing. All the components of social factors correlated with the emotional well-being of the fostered adolescents show that appropriate schooling and educational services can strengthen them and are more likely to view their schools as a supportive and safe haven. Therefore, peers, the foster family and the foster adolescents’ exposure to academics either directly or indirectly affects their emotional well-being. It also showed that the majority (54.1%) accepted that they can count on their carers to help them when the need arises. It is also revealed that the foster family attitude is an adolescent’s source of emotional support and their psychological well-being which may increase self-esteem in the fostered adolescents. This study revealed that 44.3% of the respondents confirmed that they always get along well with their carers. Conclusion: Adolescents in foster care face multiple threats to their healthy development, including poor physical health, attachment disorders, compromised brain functioning, inadequate and emotional skills


Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of marketing-mix concepts on the purchasing engagements of community pharmacists with supply channels in low and middle-income settings. Secondly, to use an Impact scale to measure the dominant marketing-mix factors that influence procurement decision-making practices. Methods: A descriptive study that used self-administered questionnaires, distributed to community pharmacists from March to May 2021 in Southwestern, Nigeria. A mixed-method sampling technique was adopted. Ethical approval was given by the Ministry of health (HPRS/381/371). Study outcomes were compared against measures of the Impact scale. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were used to test the study hypotheses using SPSS-25. Significance was set at p<0.05 Results: The response rate was 79.6% representing 398 community pharmacists. Age of community pharmacists had significant association with price-sensitivity (p<0.01). Community pharmacists with more employees tended to be price-sensitive (p=0.003). Promotion variable had the highest influence (Mean score=2.73, SD=0.43, Impact-level=moderate), followed by Price (Mean score=2.65, SD=0.34, Impact-level=moderate), Place (Mean score=2.61, SD=0.51, Impact-level=moderate), Perception (Mean score=2.48, SD=0.42, Impact-level=low), and the least impactful was Product (Mean score=2.46, SD=0.41, Impact level=low). The study revealed an overall low-to-moderate involvement (Mean score=2.59, SD=0.42) and influence of marketing-mix on the level of engagement of community pharmacists with supply channels. Conclusion: Findings suggest a shift of focus away from product-based considerations. Therefore, the study recommends a more balanced decision approach using an Impact rating scale. Improved focus on key priorities that can positively impact quality pharmaceutical care to the patient is advocated.

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