Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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Author(s):  
Isaac O. Akerele ◽  
Adaeze C. Oreh ◽  
Mohammed B. Kawu ◽  
Abubakar Ahmadu ◽  
Josephine N. Okechukwu ◽  
...  

Background: Knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is unfolding. Insights from patient features in different environments are therefore vital to understanding the disease and improving outcomes.Aim: This study aimed to describe patient characteristics associated with symptomatic presentation and duration of hospitalisation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients managed in Abuja.Setting: The study was conducted in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 201 COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the Asokoro District Hospital COVID-19 Isolation and Treatment Centre between April 2020 and July 2020. Demographic and clinical data were obtained and outcomes assessed were symptom presentation and duration of hospitalisation.Results: Patients’ median age was 39.3 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 26–52); 65.7% were male and 33.8% were health workers. Up to 49.2% of the patients were overweight or obese, 68.2% had mild COVID-19 at presentation and the most common symptoms were cough (38.3%) and fever (33.8%). Hypertension (22.9%) and diabetes mellitus (7.5%) were the most common comorbidities. The median duration of hospitalisation was 14.4 days (IQR: 9.5–19). Individuals with secondary and tertiary education had higher percentage symptoms presentation (8.5% and 34%, respectively), whilst a history of daily alcohol intake increased the length of hospital stay by 129.0%.Conclusion: Higher educational levels were linked with symptom presentation in COVID-19 patients and that daily alcohol intake was significantly associated with longer hospital stay. These findings highlight the importance of public education on COVID-19 for symptom recognition, early presentation and improved outcomes.


2021 ◽  
pp. 2782-2792
Author(s):  
Yos Adi Prakoso ◽  
Chylen Setiyo Rini ◽  
Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum ◽  
Nurul Hidayah ◽  
Dyah Widhowati ◽  
...  

Background and Aim: The coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a global lockdown, which has limited the mobility of the public, and thus, more time is spent with their pets. Unfortunately, many social media have blamed pet animals as a reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, triggering a panic abandonment of pets. However, no article has summarized the information regarding the role of pets as SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs. This study aimed to evaluate the role of pets as a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of research papers (i.e., animal model, surveillance, and case report) published in 2020. Materials and Methods: The review was conducted using articles from the PubMed database in 2020, using the keywords "COVID-19 in domesticated animals," which were screened and analyzed. Only the data from research articles were mimicked and transformed to conduct a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was conducted regarding the effects of inhabitation and viral shedding in pets. In this study, we used 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 132 papers in PubMed were related to the keywords, whereas only 12 papers were appropriate to answer the dynamics of the role of pets as the reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. Seven studies indicated the potential of cat-cat (4/7), human-cat (2/7), and human-dog (1/7) SARS-CoV-2 transmission. No study proved the presence of cat-human transmission. Another study showed that comingling did not affect SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding among a cat and dog. Furthermore, the viral shedding of cats and dogs caused asymptomatic manifestations and generated neutralizing antibodies within a short period of time. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 transmission is present in domesticated animals, especially in pet cats and dogs, and transmission occurs between animals of the same species (cat-cat). The reverse zoonosis (zooanthroponosis) was found from human to cat/dog (comingled) with asymptomatic clinical signs due to the representation of neutralizing antibodies.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kentaro Fukumoto ◽  
Charles T. McClean ◽  
Kuninori Nakagawa

AbstractAmong tool kits to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, school closures are one of the most frequent non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, school closures bring about substantial costs, such as learning loss. To date, studies have not reached a consensus about the effectiveness of these policies at mitigating community transmission, partly because they lack rigorous causal inference. Here we assess the causal effect of school closures in Japan on reducing the spread of COVID-19 in spring 2020. By matching each municipality with open schools to a municipality with closed schools that is the most similar in terms of potential confounders, we can estimate how many cases the municipality with open schools would have had if it had closed its schools. We do not find any evidence that school closures in Japan reduced the spread of COVID-19. Our null results suggest that policies on school closures should be reexamined given the potential negative consequences for children and parents.


2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marjan Meurisse ◽  
Adrien Lajot ◽  
Yves Dupont ◽  
Marie Lesenfants ◽  
Sofieke Klamer ◽  
...  

Abstract Background With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an existing national laboratory-based surveillance system was adapted to daily monitor the epidemiological situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the Belgium by following the number of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, the number of performed tests and the positivity ratio. We present these main indicators of the surveillance over a one-year period as well as the impact of the performance of the laboratories, regarding speed of processing the samples and reporting results, for surveillance. Methods We describe the evolution of test capacity, testing strategy and the data collection methods during the first year of the epidemic in Belgium. Results Between the 1st of March 2020 and the 28th of February 2021, 9,487,470 tests and 773,078 COVID-19 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. Two epidemic waves occurred, with a peak in April and October 2020. The capacity and performance of the laboratories improved continuously during 2020 resulting in a high level performance. Since the end of November 2020 90 to 95% of the test results are reported at the latest the day after sampling was performed. Conclusions Thanks to the effort of all laboratories a performant exhaustive national laboratory-based surveillance system to monitor the epidemiological situation of SARS-CoV-2 was set up in Belgium in 2020. On top of expanding the number of laboratories performing diagnostics and significantly increasing the test capacity in Belgium, turnaround times between sampling and testing as well as reporting were optimized over the first year of this pandemic.


Author(s):  
Nicholas Wohlgemuth ◽  
Kendall Whitt ◽  
Sean Cherry ◽  
Ericka Kirkpatrick Roubidoux ◽  
Chun-Yang Lin ◽  
...  

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Prior infection or vaccination can be detected by the presence of antibodies in the blood.


Author(s):  
Da Young Kim ◽  
Eun Kyung Bae ◽  
Jun-Won Seo ◽  
Na Ra Yun ◽  
Choon-Mee Kim ◽  
...  

In our study, we analyzed the viral kinetics of COVID-19 patients. Our study reveals differences in viral shedding according to the severity of disease in COVID-19 patients. Viral shedding had a longer duration in severely affected patients, and the cyclic threshold values were lower in the group receiving steroids. This study is expected to be helpful in analyzing the trend of the disease course according to steroid use and severity of SARS-COV-2 disease.


Author(s):  
Sharon P. Lo ◽  
Tung-Chin Hsieh ◽  
Alexander W. Pastuszak ◽  
James M. Hotaling ◽  
Darshan P. Patel

AbstractSince severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first discovered, there have been questions surrounding the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and more recently the COVID-19 vaccine, on men’s health and fertility. Significant research has been conducted to study viral tropism, potential causes for gender susceptibility, the impact of COVID-19 on male sexual function in the acute and recovery phases, and the effects of the virus on male reproductive organs and hormones. This review provides a recent assessment of the literature regarding the impact of COVID-19 and its vaccine on male sexual health and reproduction.


Nature Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Annika Fendler ◽  
Scott T. C. Shepherd ◽  
Lewis Au ◽  
Katalin A. Wilkinson ◽  
Mary Wu ◽  
...  

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antiviral response in a pan-tumor immune monitoring (CAPTURE) (NCT03226886) is a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 immunity in patients with cancer. Here we evaluated 585 patients following administration of two doses of BNT162b2 or AZD1222 vaccines, administered 12 weeks apart. Seroconversion rates after two doses were 85% and 59% in patients with solid and hematological malignancies, respectively. A lower proportion of patients had detectable titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbT) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) versus wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. Patients with hematological malignancies were more likely to have undetectable NAbT and had lower median NAbT than those with solid cancers against both SARS-CoV-2 WT and VOC. By comparison with individuals without cancer, patients with hematological, but not solid, malignancies had reduced neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Seroconversion showed poor concordance with NAbT against VOC. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection boosted the NAb response including against VOC, and anti-CD20 treatment was associated with undetectable NAbT. Vaccine-induced T cell responses were detected in 80% of patients and were comparable between vaccines or cancer types. Our results have implications for the management of patients with cancer during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gian Luca Salvagno ◽  
Brandon M. Henry ◽  
Laura Pighi ◽  
Simone De Nitto ◽  
Giuseppe Lippi

Abstract Background: Since serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) IgA antibodies correlate with secretory anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and contribute to virus neutralization, we planned an observational study to measure serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgAs kinetics throughout a 6-month period in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine recipients.Methods: The study sample consisted of 97 baseline SARS-CoV-2 seronegative healthcare workers (median age 42 years and IQR 31-52 years; 52 females), who underwent vaccination with Pfizer/BioNTech Comirnaty mRNA-based vaccine (two 30 µg doses, 21 days apart). Serum samples were collected at baseline, before the second vaccine dose (i.e., day 21), and then 51, 111 and 201 days after enrolment (i.e., 1, 3 and 6 months after the second vaccine dose). Serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit IgA were measured with Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany).Results: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit IgA displayed a peak at 1 month after the second vaccine dose, but then progressively waned afterwards. The 6-month serum anti-spike S1 subunit IgA concentration was 71% lower than the peak concentration. The rate of subjects with positive IgA values was 0% at baseline, 80.4% at day 21, 97.9% at day 51, but then declined to 73.2% and 53.6% at 3 and 6 months after the second vaccine dose. Serum anti-spike S1 subunit IgAs measured at 111 and 201 days was significantly lower than at the 51-day peak (both p<0.001). Significant inverse correlation was found between anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA antibodies decline at 6 months/ and recipients’ age (r=-0.24; p=0.019).Conclusion: These findings may provide possible explanation to decreased efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection 6 months after vaccination.


2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (44) ◽  
pp. e2107148118
Author(s):  
Lin Sun ◽  
Somanath Kallolimath ◽  
Roman Palt ◽  
Karin Stiasny ◽  
Patrick Mayrhofer ◽  
...  

Here, we expressed two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Abs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; H4 and B38) in three formats: IgG1, IgA1 monomers (m), and IgA1 dimers (d) in glycoengineered Nicotiana benthamiana plants. All six Ab variants assembled properly and exhibited a largely homogeneous glycosylation profile. Despite modest variation in antigen binding between Ab formats, SARS-CoV-2 neutralization (NT) potency significantly increased in the following manner: IgG1 < IgA1-m < IgA1-d, with an up to 240-fold NT increase of dimers compared to corresponding monomers. Our results underscore that both IgA’s structural features and multivalency positively impact NT potency. In addition, they emphasize the versatile use of plants for the rapid expression of complex human proteins.


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