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Omoloro Adeleke ◽  
Farrukh Gill ◽  
Ramesh Krishnan

The Limb Body Wall Complex (LBWC) aka. Body Stalk Syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder characterized by severe malformations of limb, thorax, and abdomen, characterized by the presence of thoracoschisis, abdominoschisis, limb defects, and exencephaly. This condition is extremely rare with an incidence of 1 per 14,000 and 1 per 31,000 pregnancies in large epidemiologic studies. Majority of these malformed fetuses end up with spontaneous abortions. We present this rare case with occurrence in a preterm infant of 35 weeks gestation. Our report highlights majority of the clinical presentations as reported in previous literature, but the significant pathological findings of absent genitalia and malformed genitourinary, anorectal malformations make this case presentation an even more rare occurrence. Infant karyotyping was normal male and there is no specific underlying genetic correlation in this condition which has fatal prognosis.

Larissa Marques Santana ◽  
Larissa de Aguiar Martins ◽  
Marcos Rosa-Júnior

Abstract Introduction There are some inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic diseases affecting the extrinsic orbital musculature (EOM) that present with pain, decreased visual acuity, and proptosis. Imaging is fundamental to the differential diagnoses of these diseases with similar clinical presentations. The present case series report has as main objective to illustrate and discuss the main pathologies that affect the orbit. Material and methods The present series of cases discusses the main pathologies that can affect the extraocular musculature that can be characterized by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using cases from our institution. Results and Discussion The present study compiled several cases of ophthalmopathy from our institution to illustrate and address some of these pathologies, such as orbital lymphoma, Grave disease, metastases, periorbital cellulitis, and idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome. The diseases are discussed according to the presentation of clinical cases with emphasis on the main imaging findings of each pathology. Conclusion Computed tomography and MRI can help in the diagnosis and follow-up of the diseases that affect the EOM. We must be conversant with the main characteristics of the pathologies presented in the present case series report, since such findings together with clinical data can confirm the diagnosis of these diseases or at least help to narrow the differential diagnoses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Cristoforo Guccione ◽  
Raffaella Rubino ◽  
Claudia Colomba ◽  
Antonio Anastasia ◽  
Valentina Caputo ◽  

Background: Motivated by a case finding of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) associated with atypical pneumonia and pleural effusion in which Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis was identified by molecular methods in the pleural fluid, we wanted to summarize the clinical presentations of rickettsiosis in Italy by systematic research and to make a systematic review of all the global cases of rickettsiosis associated with pleural effusion. Methods: For the literature search, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology was followed. We chose to select only the studies published in last 25 years and confirmed both with serological and molecular assays. Results: Human cases of rickettsiosis in Italy were reported in 48 papers describing 2831 patients with very different clinical presentations; the majority was MSF accounted to R. conorii and was reported in Sicily. Pleural effusion associated with infection with microorganisms belonging to Rickettsiales was described in 487 patients. It was rarely associated with microorganisms different from O. tsutsugamushi; also rarely, cases of scrub typhus were reported outside Southeast Asia and in the largest majority, the diagnosis was achieved with serology. Conclusions: MSF, especially when caused by R. conorii subsp. israelensis, may be a severe disease. A high index of suspicion is required to promptly start life-saving therapy. Pleural effusion and interstitial pneumonia may be part of the clinical picture of severe rickettsial disease and should not lead the physician away from this diagnosis

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gongjun Tan ◽  
Binila Baby ◽  
Yuqiu Zhou ◽  
Tianfu Wu

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease which can affect various tissues and organs, posing significant challenges for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The etiology of SLE is highly complex with contributions from environmental factors, stochastic factors as well as genetic susceptibility. The current criteria for diagnosing SLE is based primarily on a combination of clinical presentations and traditional lab testing. However, these tests have suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. They are unable to indicate disease cause or guide physicians in decision-making for treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more accurate and robust tool for effective clinical management and drug development in lupus patients. It is fortunate that the emerging Omics have empowered scientists in the discovery and identification of potential novel biomarkers of SLE, especially the markers from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), and other bodily fluids. However, many of these markers have not been carefully validated for clinical use. In addition, it is apparent that individual biomarkers lack sensitivity or specificity. This review summarizes the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value of emerging biomarkers from recent studies, and discusses the potential of these markers in the development of biomarker panel based diagnostics or disease monitoring system in SLE.

2022 ◽  
Rahul Garg ◽  
Pramod Gautam ◽  
Varun Suroliya ◽  
Reshu Agarwal ◽  
Arjun Bhugra ◽  

Background: Since identification, infections by the new SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron are rapidly increasing worldwide. There is a huge gap of knowledge regarding virus behavior in the population from low and middle-income countries. Delhi being a unique population with a high seropositivity and vaccination rate against COVID-19 infection. We aimed to study the epidemiological and clinical presentations of a few early cases of community spread of Omicron infection in the state. Methods: This is a prospective study where respiratory specimen from all RT-PCR confirmed positive cases between November 25th-December 23rd 2021 collected from five districts of Delhi were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Complete demographic and clinical details were recorded. We also analyzed the formation of local and familial clusters and eventual community transmission. Findings: Out of the 264 cases included during the study period, 68.9% (n=182)were identified as Delta and its sub-lineages while 31.06% (n=82) were Omicron with BA.1 as the predominant sub-lineage (73.1%). Most of the Omicron cases were asymptomatic (n=50,61%) and did not require any hospitalizations. A total of 72 (87.8%) cases were fully vaccinated. 39.1% (n=32) had a history of travel and/or contacts while 60.9 (n=50) showed a community transmission. A steep increase in the daily progression of Omicron cases with its preponderance in the community was observed from 1.8% to 54%. Interpretation: This study is among the first from India to provide evidence of community transmission of Omicron with significantly increased breakthrough infections, decreased hospitalization rates, and a lower rate of symptomatic infections among individuals with high seropositivity against SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tianchang Tao ◽  
Xianfen Meng ◽  
Ningda Xu ◽  
Jiarui Li ◽  
Yong Cheng ◽  

Abstract Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial retinal disease, involving both environmental and genetic factors; The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentations and genetic variants in Chinese patients with ROP. Methods A total of 36 patients diagnosed with ROP were enrolled in this study, their medical and ophthalmic histories were obtained, and comprehensive clinical examinations were performed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of ROP patients, polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the associated pathogenic genes (FZD4, TSPAN12, and NDP) were performed. Results All patients exhibited the clinical manifestations of ROP. No mutations were detected in the TSPAN12 and NDP genes in all patients; Interestingly, three novel missense mutations were identified in the FZD4 gene (p.A2P, p.L79M, and p.Y378C) in four patients, for a detection rate of 11.1% (4/36). Conclusions This study expands the genotypic spectrum of FZD4 gene in ROP patients, and our findings underscore the importance of obtaining molecular analyses and comprehensive health screening for this retinal disease.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Ioana Cretu ◽  
Bogdan Cretu ◽  
Catalin Cirstoiu ◽  
Adrian Cursaru ◽  
Mihaela Milicescu ◽  

Background and Objectives: The occurrence of rheumatological side effects in a patient after receiving immunotherapy for cancer is becoming increasingly common. Oncologists often fail to diagnose and refer affected patients to rheumatologists. This paper presents the various rheumatological adverse events that occur after immunotherapy in patients as well as their treatment and evolution. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients were monitored between November 2018 and March 2020. The oncologist monitoring the immunotherapy-treated patients identified the occurrence of musculoskeletal side effects. The grading of toxicities was performed by both the oncologist and the rheumatologist using common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE). Rheumatological treatment was administered, and for some patients, immunotherapy was discontinued. Results: The clinical presentations of the patients varied. Mild side effects (grade 1–2) were reported in a higher proportion than severe side effects (grade 3–5). Therefore, thirty-one patients had mild-to-moderate side effects, and five patients had severe side effects. Adverse reactions occurred, on average, 10 weeks after the initiation of immunotherapy; this indicated that the severity of the toxicity was dose dependent. Patients were treated with NSAIDs or prednisone, depending on the severity of the side effects, and for patients with severe manifestations, immunotherapy was discontinued. The remission of rheumatic manifestations varied depending on the grade of the manifestations. Conclusions: The clinical, biological, and ultrasound presentations of the patients with adverse events followed by cancer treatments differed from classic rheumatological manifestations. Thorough examinations of these patients by both oncologists and rheumatologists are needed in order to correctly diagnose and treat rheumatological adverse events. Multiple studies that include a larger number of participants are needed in order to better understand the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of these patients under different treatment conditions.

Martin Haywood

The full blood count (FBC) is one of the most commonly requested blood tests in medical practice and can provide a wealth of useful information about a patient’s general state of health, as well as highlighting abnormalities which indicate systemic or sinister pathologies. This article seeks to explore the different parameters of the FBC, and how these relate to some more common clinical presentations, as well as their relation to morphological findings seen on the blood film. As with most investigations, differential diagnoses suggested by any individual laboratory tests are wide and are most valuable when combined with history and examination.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 92-98
Anu Yarky ◽  
Priyesh Sharma ◽  
Vipan Kumar

The diagnosis of overlap syndrome involving systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) isn’t easily established due to its similar clinical presentations and biochemical features to those of lupus hepatitis. The term overlap syndrome is typically utilized in the context of overlap of autoimmune hepatitis with PSC (primary sclerosing cholangitis) or PBC (primary biliary cholangitis). Few rare cases of AIH complicated by SLE are reported within the literature. Overlapping of SLE and AIH should be suspected when patients with SLE have abnormal liver function tests or AIH patients present with a rash. Liver biopsy plays a really important role in establishing the medical diagnosis of SLE with liver impairment or overlap with AIH. The prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment plan can improve the disease outcome. Key words: autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, overlap syndrome.

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