Prospective Observational Study
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0253602
Motoki Fujita ◽  
Masaki Todani ◽  
Kotaro Kaneda ◽  
Shinya Suzuki ◽  
Shinjiro Wakai ◽  

Background The purpose of this study was to clarify the practical clinical treatment for acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Japan and to investigate the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in preventing delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) in the acute phase of CO poisoning. Methods We conducted a multicenter, prospective, observational study of acute CO poisoning in Japan. Patients with acute CO poisoning were enrolled and their treatment details were recorded. The primary endpoint was the onset of DNS within 2 months of CO exposure. Factors associated with DNS were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 311 patients from 57 institutions were registered and 255 were analyzed: 171 received HBO2 therapy (HBO2 group) and 84 did not (normobaric oxygen [NBO2] group). HBO2 therapy was performed zero, once, twice, or three times within the first 24 h in 1.8%, 55.9%, 30.9%, and 11.3% of the HBO2 group, respectively. The treatment pressure in the first HBO2 session was 2.8 ATA (47.9% of the HBO2 group), 2.0 ATA (41.8%), 2.5 ATA (7.9%), or another pressure (2.4%). The incidence of DNS was 13/171 (7.6%) in the HBO2 group and 3/84 (3.6%) in the NBO2 group (P = 0.212). The number of HBO2 sessions in the first 24 h was one of the factors associated with the incidence of DNS (odds ratio, 2.082; 95% confidence interval, 1.101–3.937; P = 0.024). Conclusions The practical clinical treatment for acute CO poisoning, including HBO2 therapy, varied among the institutions participating in Japan. HBO2 therapy with inconsistent protocols showed no advantage over NBO2 therapy in preventing DNS. Multiple HBO2 sessions was associated with the incidence of DNS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Alexander Dahl Stjernholm ◽  
Sanne Marie Thysen ◽  
Igualdino Da Silva Borges ◽  
Ane Bærent Fisker

Abstract Background Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with higher mortality and morbidity, but there is limited data on the prevalence of LBW in rural Africa, where many births occur at home. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has non-specific effects. Studies suggest that maternal BCG-vaccination may affect the health of the child. Methods The present study is nested within a randomised trial in rural Guinea-Bissau: Pregnancies were registered at two-monthly village visits, where information on BCG scar status and other background factors were obtained. Children were enrolled in the trial and weighed at home within 72 h after birth. In this prospective observational study, we assessed factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and birthweight in binomial and linear regression models. Results Among 1320 women who had their BCG scar status assessed, 848 (64%) had a scar, 472 (36%) had no scar. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriages, stillbirths, early neonatal deaths) tended to be higher among BCG scar-negative women (13%) than among women with a BCG scar (10%), adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.29 (0.99–1.68). Birthweight was assessed for 628 (50%) of the 1232 live born children. The mean birthweight was 2.89 kg (SD 0.43) and the proportion of LBW children was 17% (104/628). Sex, twinning, region of birth, maternal age, maternal mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), antenatal consultations, parity and possession of a mobile phone were associated with birthweight, while maternal BCG scar status was not. Conclusions This study provides the first birthweight data for home-born children in rural Guinea-Bissau, with a mean birthweight of 2.89 kg (SD 0.43) and a LBW prevalence of 17%. We found a tendency for higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among BCG scar-negative women. Birthweight was similar in children of mothers with and without BCG scar.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Shaik Imran ◽  
Molly Mary Thabah ◽  
Mohamed Azharudeen ◽  
Ananthakrishnan Ramesh ◽  
Zachariah Bobby ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Luca Bedetti ◽  
Licia Lugli ◽  
Lucia Marrozzini ◽  
Alessandro Baraldi ◽  
Federica Leone ◽  

Objective: This study aims to evaluate safety and success rates of lumbar puncture (LP) and to identify factors associated with adverse events or failure of LP in infants.Methods: This two-center prospective observational study investigated infants younger than 90 days of age who underwent LP. Need for resuscitation oxygen desaturation (SpO2 < 90%), bradycardia and intraventricular hemorrhage were considered adverse events. LP failed if cerebrospinal spinal fluid was not collected or had traces of blood. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether corrected gestational age (GA), body weight at LP, position, and any respiratory support during LP affected SpO2 desaturation or failure of LP.Results: Among 204 LPs, 134 were performed in full-term and 70 in pre-term born infants. SpO2 desaturations occurred during 45 (22.4%) LPs. At multivariate analysis, lower GA at LP (p < 0.001), non-invasive respiratory support (p 0.007) and mechanical ventilation (p 0.004) were associated with SpO2 desaturations. Transient, self-resolving bradycardia occurred in 7 (3.4%) infants. Two infants had intraventricular hemorrhage detected within 72 h of LP. No further adverse events were registered. Failure of LP occurred in 38.2% of cases and was not associated with any of the factors evaluated.Conclusions: LP was safe in most infants. Body weight or GA at LP did not affect LP failure. These data are useful to clinicians, providing information on the safety of the procedure.

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