The application of the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) within the field of quantum computation has been manifold. Shor’s algorithm, phase estimation and computing discrete logarithms are but a few classic examples of its use. These initial blueprints for quantum algorithms have sparked a cascade of tantalizing solutions to problems considered to be intractable on a classical computer. Therefore, two main threads of research have unfolded. First, novel applications and algorithms involving the QFT are continually being developed. Second, improvements in the algorithmic complexity of the QFT are also a sought after commodity. In this work, we review the structure of the QFT and its implementation. In order to put these concepts in their proper perspective, we provide a brief overview of quantum computation. Finally, we provide a permutation structure for putting the QFT within the context of universal computation.
We study the computational power of unitary Clifford circuits with solely magic state inputs (CM circuits), supplemented by classical efficient computation. We show that CM circuits are hard to classically simulate up to multiplicative error (assuming polynomial hierarchy non-collapse), and also up to additive error under plausible average-case hardness conjectures. Unlike other such known classes, a broad variety of possible conjectures apply. Along the way, we give an extension of the Gottesman–Knill theorem that applies to universal computation, showing that for Clifford circuits with joint stabilizer and non-stabilizer inputs, the stabilizer part can be eliminated in favour of classical simulation, leaving a Clifford circuit on only the non-stabilizer part. Finally, we discuss implementational advantages of CM circuits.
We introduce a new family of models for measurement-based quantum computation which are deterministic and approximately universal. The resource states which play the role of graph states are prepared via 2-qubit gates of the form exp(−iπ2nZ⊗Z). When n=2, these are equivalent, up to local Clifford unitaries, to graph states. However, when n>2, their behaviour diverges in two important ways. First, multiple applications of the entangling gate to a single pair of qubits produces non-trivial entanglement, and hence multiple parallel edges between nodes play an important role in these generalised graph states. Second, such a state can be used to realise deterministic, approximately universal computation using only Pauli Z and X measurements and feed-forward. Even though, for n>2, the relevant resource states are no longer stabiliser states, they admit a straightforward, graphical representation using the ZX-calculus. Using this representation, we are able to provide a simple, graphical proof of universality. We furthermore show that for every n>2 this family is capable of producing all Clifford gates and all diagonal gates in the n-th level of the Clifford hierarchy.
AbstractWe review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.