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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Author(s):  
Zhiwen Xie ◽  
Runjie Zhu ◽  
Kunsong Zhao ◽  
Jin Liu ◽  
Guangyou Zhou ◽  
...  

Cross-lingual entity alignment has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Past studies using conventional approaches to match entities share the common problem of missing important structural information beyond entities in the modeling process. This allows graph neural network models to step in. Most existing graph neural network approaches model individual knowledge graphs (KGs) separately with a small amount of pre-aligned entities served as anchors to connect different KG embedding spaces. However, this characteristic can cause several major problems, including performance restraint due to the insufficiency of available seed alignments and ignorance of pre-aligned links that are useful in contextual information in-between nodes. In this article, we propose DuGa-DIT, a dual gated graph attention network with dynamic iterative training, to address these problems in a unified model. The DuGa-DIT model captures neighborhood and cross-KG alignment features by using intra-KG attention and cross-KG attention layers. With the dynamic iterative process, we can dynamically update the cross-KG attention score matrices, which enables our model to capture more cross-KG information. We conduct extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets and a case study in cross-lingual personalized search. Our experimental results demonstrate that DuGa-DIT outperforms state-of-the-art methods.


Author(s):  
Ali Ebrahimi ◽  
Kamal Mirzaie ◽  
Ali Mohamad Latif

There are several methods for categorizing images, the most of which are statistical, geometric, model-based and structural methods. In this paper, a new method for describing images based on complex network models is presented. Each image contains a number of key points that can be identified through standard edge detection algorithms. To understand each image better, we can use these points to create a graph of the image. In order to facilitate the use of graphs, generated graphs are created in the form of a complex network of small-worlds. Complex grid features such as topological and dynamic features can be used to display image-related features. After generating this information, it normalizes them and uses them as suitable features for categorizing images. For this purpose, the generated information is given to the neural network. Based on these features and the use of neural networks, comparisons between new images are performed. The results of the article show that this method has a good performance in identifying similarities and finally categorizing them.


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Dahmen ◽  
Moritz Layer ◽  
Lukas Deutz ◽  
Paulina Anna Dąbrowska ◽  
Nicole Voges ◽  
...  

Modern electrophysiological recordings simultaneously capture single-unit spiking activities of hundreds of neurons spread across large cortical distances. Yet, this parallel activity is often confined to relatively low-dimensional manifolds. This implies strong coordination also among neurons that are most likely not even connected. Here, we combine in vivo recordings with network models and theory to characterize the nature of mesoscopic coordination patterns in macaque motor cortex and to expose their origin: We find that heterogeneity in local connectivity supports network states with complex long-range cooperation between neurons that arises from multi-synaptic, short-range connections. Our theory explains the experimentally observed spatial organization of covariances in resting state recordings as well as the behaviorally related modulation of covariance patterns during a reach-to-grasp task. The ubiquity of heterogeneity in local cortical circuits suggests that the brain uses the described mechanism to flexibly adapt neuronal coordination to momentary demands.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nurcan Tuncbag ◽  
Seyma Unsal Beyge

Abstract Heterogeneity across tumors is the main obstacle in developing treatment strategies. Drug molecules not only perturb their immediate protein targets but also modulate multiple signaling pathways. In this study, we explored the networks modulated by several drug molecules across multiple cancer cell lines by integrating the drug targets with transcriptomic and phosphoproteomic data. As a result, we obtained 236 reconstructed networks covering five cell lines and 70 drugs. A rigorous topological and pathway analysis showed that chemically and functionally different drugs may modulate overlapping networks. Additionally, we revealed a set of tumor-specific hidden pathways with the help of drug network models that are not detectable from the initial data. The difference in the target selectivity of the drugs leads to disjoint networks despite sharing the exact mechanism of action, e.g., HDAC inhibitors. We also used the reconstructed network models to study potential drug combinations based on the topological separation, found literature evidence for a set of drug pairs. Overall, the network-level exploration of the drug perturbations may potentially help optimize treatment strategies and suggest new drug combinations.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 637
Author(s):  
Maciej Zaborowicz ◽  
Katarzyna Zaborowicz ◽  
Barbara Biedziak ◽  
Tomasz Garbowski

Dental age is one of the most reliable methods for determining a patient’s age. The timing of teething, the period of tooth replacement, or the degree of tooth attrition is an important diagnostic factor in the assessment of an individual’s developmental age. It is used in orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, endocrinology, forensic medicine, and pathomorphology, but also in scenarios regarding international adoptions and illegal immigrants. The methods used to date are time-consuming and not very precise. For this reason, artificial intelligence methods are increasingly used to estimate the age of a patient. The present work is a continuation of the work of Zaborowicz et al. In the presented research, a set of 21 original indicators was used to create deep neural network models. The aim of this study was to verify the ability to generate a more accurate deep neural network model compared to models produced previously. The quality parameters of the produced models were as follows. The MAE error of the produced models, depending on the learning set used, was between 2.34 and 4.61 months, while the RMSE error was between 5.58 and 7.49 months. The correlation coefficient R2 ranged from 0.92 to 0.96.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 850
Author(s):  
Sungchul Lee ◽  
Eunmin Hwang ◽  
Yanghee Kim ◽  
Fatih Demir ◽  
Hyunhwa Lee ◽  
...  

With the prevalence of obesity in adolescents, and its long-term influence on their overall health, there is a large body of research exploring better ways to reduce the rate of obesity. A traditional way of maintaining an adequate body mass index (BMI), calculated by measuring the weight and height of an individual, is no longer enough, and we are in need of a better health care tool. Therefore, the current research proposes an easier method that offers instant and real-time feedback to the users from the data collected from the motion sensors of a smartphone. The study utilized the mHealth application to identify participants presenting the walking movements of the high BMI group. Using the feedforward deep learning models and convolutional neural network models, the study was able to distinguish the walking movements between nonobese and obese groups, at a rate of 90.5%. The research highlights the potential use of smartphones and suggests the mHealth application as a way to monitor individual health.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marco Cremonini ◽  
Samira Maghool

AbstractIn network models of propagation processes, the individual, microscopic level perspective is the norm, with aggregations studied as possible outcomes. On the contrary, we adopted a mesoscale perspective with groups as the core element and in this sense we present a novel agent-group dynamic model of propagation in networks. In particular, we focus on ephemeral groups that dynamically form, create new links, and dissolve. The experiments simulated 160 model configurations and produced results describing cases of consecutive and non-consecutive dynamic grouping, bounded or unbounded in the number of repetitions. Results revealed the existence of complex dynamics and multiple behaviors. An efficiency metric is introduced to compare the different cases. A Null Model analysis disclosed a pattern in the difference between the group and random models, varying with the size of groups. Our findings indicate that a mesoscopic construct like the ephemeral group, based on assumptions about social behavior and absent any microscopic level change, could produce and describe complex propagation dynamics. A conclusion is that agent-group dynamic models may represent a powerful approach for modelers and a promising new direction for future research in models of coevolution between propagation and behavior in society.


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Baohua Zhou ◽  
Zifan Li ◽  
Sunnie Kim ◽  
John Lafferty ◽  
Damon A Clark

Animals have evolved sophisticated visual circuits to solve a vital inference problem: detecting whether or not a visual signal corresponds to an object on a collision course. Such events are detected by specific circuits sensitive to visual looming, or objects increasing in size. Various computational models have been developed for these circuits, but how the collision-detection inference problem itself shapes the computational structures of these circuits remains unknown. Here, inspired by the distinctive structures of LPLC2 neurons in the visual system of Drosophila, we build anatomically-constrained shallow neural network models and train them to identify visual signals that correspond to impending collisions. Surprisingly, the optimization arrives at two distinct, opposing solutions, only one of which matches the actual dendritic weighting of LPLC2 neurons. Both solutions can solve the inference problem with high accuracy when the population size is large enough. The LPLC2-like solutions reproduces experimentally observed LPLC2 neuron responses for many stimuli, and reproduces canonical tuning of loom sensitive neurons, even though the models are never trained on neural data. Thus, LPLC2 neuron properties and tuning are predicted by optimizing an anatomically-constrained neural network to detect impending collisions. More generally, these results illustrate how optimizing inference tasks that are important for an animal's perceptual goals can reveal and explain computational properties of specific sensory neurons.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leon Faure ◽  
Bastien Mollet ◽  
Wolfram Liebermeister ◽  
Jean-Loup Faulon

Metabolic networks have largely been exploited as mechanistic tools to predict the behavior of microorganisms with a defined genotype in different environments. However, flux predictions by constraint-based modeling approaches are limited in quality unless labor-intensive experiments including the measurement of media intake fluxes, are performed. Using machine learning instead of an optimization of biomass flux - on which most existing constraint-based methods are based - provides ways to improve flux and growth rate predictions. In this paper, we show how Recurrent Neural Networks can surrogate constraint-based modeling and make metabolic networks suitable for backpropagation and consequently be used as an architecture for machine learning. We refer to our hybrid - mechanistic and neural network - models as Artificial Metabolic Networks (AMN). We showcase AMN and illustrate its performance with an experimental dataset of Escherichia coli growth rates in 73 different media compositions. We reach a regression coefficient of R2=0.78 on cross-validation sets. We expect AMNs to provide easier discovery of metabolic insights and prompt new biotechnological applications.


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