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Published By Ios Press

1875-8681, 0169-2968

2022 ◽  
Vol 184 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-82
Author(s):  
Jesús Arturo Jiménez González

In the context of signed line graphs, this article introduces a modified inflation technique to study strong Gram congruence of non-negative (integral quadratic) unit forms, and uses it to show that weak and strong Gram congruence coincide among positive unit forms of Dynkin type 𝔸n. The concept of inverse of a quiver is also introduced, and is used to obtain and analyze the Coxeter matrix of non-negative unit forms of Dynkin type 𝔸n. With these tools, connected principal unit forms of Dynkin type 𝔸n are also classified up to strong congruence.


2022 ◽  
Vol 184 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-47
Author(s):  
Pierre Ganty ◽  
Elena Gutiérrez ◽  
Pedro Valero

We provide new insights on the determinization and minimization of tree automata using congruences on trees. From this perspective, we study a Brzozowski’s style minimization algorithm for tree automata. First, we prove correct this method relying on the following fact: when the automata-based and the language-based congruences coincide, determinizing the automaton yields the minimal one. Such automata-based congruences, in the case of word automata, are defined using pre and post operators. Now we extend these operators to tree automata, a task that is particularly challenging due to the reduced expressive power of deterministic top-down (or equivalently co-deterministic bottom-up) automata. We leverage further our framework to offer an extension of the original result by Brzozowski for word automata.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 169-201
Author(s):  
Xavier Allamigeon ◽  
Marin Boyet ◽  
Stéphane Gaubert

We study timed Petri nets, with preselection and priority routing. We represent the behavior of these systems by piecewise affine dynamical systems. We use tools from the theory of nonexpansive mappings to analyze these systems. We establish an equivalence theorem between priority-free fluid timed Petri nets and semi-Markov decision processes, from which we derive the convergence to a periodic regime and the polynomial-time computability of the throughput. More generally, we develop an approach inspired by tropical geometry, characterizing the congestion phases as the cells of a polyhedral complex. We illustrate these results by a current application to the performance evaluation of emergency call centers in the Paris area. We show that priorities can lead to a paradoxical behavior: in certain regimes, the throughput of the most prioritary task may not be an increasing function of the resources.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 319-342
Author(s):  
Yann Thierry-Mieg

Brute-force model-checking consists in exhaustive exploration of the state-space of a Petri net, and meets the dreaded state-space explosion problem. In contrast, this paper shows how to solve model-checking problems using a combination of techniques that stay in complexity proportional to the size of the net structure rather than to the state-space size. We combine an SMT based over-approximation to prove that some behaviors are unfeasible, an under-approximation using memory-less sampling of runs to find witness traces or counter-examples, and a set of structural reduction rules that can simplify both the system and the property. This approach was able to win by a clear margin the model-checking contest 2020 for reachability queries as well as deadlock detection, thus demonstrating the practical effectiveness and general applicability of the system of rules presented in this paper.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 97-123
Author(s):  
Didier Lime ◽  
Olivier H. Roux ◽  
Charlotte Seidner

We investigate the problem of parameter synthesis for time Petri nets with a cost variable that evolves both continuously with time, and discretely when firing transitions. More precisely, parameters are rational symbolic constants used for time constraints on the firing of transitions and we want to synthesise all their values such that some marking is reachable, with a cost that is either minimal or simply less than a given bound. We first prove that the mere existence of values for the parameters such that the latter property holds is undecidable. We nonetheless provide symbolic semi-algorithms for the two synthesis problems and we prove them both sound and complete when they terminate. We also show how to modify them for the case when parameter values are integers. Finally, we prove that these modified versions terminate if parameters are bounded. While this is to be expected since there are now only a finite number of possible parameter values, our algorithms are symbolic and thus avoid an explicit enumeration of all those values. Furthermore, the results are symbolic constraints representing finite unions of convex polyhedra that are easily amenable to further analysis through linear programming. We finally report on the implementation of the approach in Romeo, a software tool for the analysis of time Petri nets.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (3-4) ◽  
pp. i-ii
Author(s):  
Ryszard Janicki ◽  
Slawomir Lasota ◽  
Natalia Sidorova

2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 293-317
Author(s):  
Anna Kalenkova ◽  
Josep Carmona ◽  
Artem Polyvyanyy ◽  
Marcello La Rosa

State-of-the-art process discovery methods construct free-choice process models from event logs. Consequently, the constructed models do not take into account indirect dependencies between events. Whenever the input behaviour is not free-choice, these methods fail to provide a precise model. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for enhancing free-choice process models by adding non-free-choice constructs discovered a-posteriori via region-based techniques. This allows us to benefit from the performance of existing process discovery methods and the accuracy of the employed fundamental synthesis techniques. We prove that the proposed approach preserves fitness with respect to the event log while improving the precision when indirect dependencies exist. The approach has been implemented and tested on both synthetic and real-life datasets. The results show its effectiveness in repairing models discovered from event logs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 33-66
Author(s):  
Alain Finkel ◽  
Serge Haddad ◽  
Igor Khmelnitsky

In the early two-thousands, Recursive Petri nets have been introduced in order to model distributed planning of multi-agent systems for which counters and recursivity were necessary. Although Recursive Petri nets strictly extend Petri nets and context-free grammars, most of the usual problems (reachability, coverability, finiteness, boundedness and termination) were known to be solvable by using non-primitive recursive algorithms. For almost all other extended Petri nets models containing a stack, the complexity of coverability and termination are unknown or strictly larger than EXPSPACE. In contrast, we establish here that for Recursive Petri nets, the coverability, termination, boundedness and finiteness problems are EXPSPACE-complete as for Petri nets. From an expressiveness point of view, we show that coverability languages of Recursive Petri nets strictly include the union of coverability languages of Petri nets and context-free languages. Thus we get a more powerful model than Petri net for free.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 67-96
Author(s):  
David de Frutos Escrig ◽  
Maciej Koutny ◽  
Łukasz Mikulski

In reversible computations one is interested in the development of mechanisms allowing to undo the effects of executed actions. The past research has been concerned mainly with reversing single actions. In this paper, we consider the problem of reversing the effect of the execution of groups of actions (steps). Using Petri nets as a system model, we introduce concepts related to this new scenario, generalising notions used in the single action case. We then present properties arising when reverse actions are allowed in place/transition nets (PT-nets). We obtain both positive and negative results, showing that allowing steps makes reversibility more problematic than in the interleaving/sequential case. In particular, we demonstrate that there is a crucial difference between reversing steps which are sets and those which are true multisets. Moreover, in contrast to sequential semantics, splitting reverses does not lead to a general method for reversing bounded PT-nets. We then show that a suitable solution can be obtained by combining split reverses with weighted read arcs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 203-242
Author(s):  
Dirk Fahland ◽  
Vadim Denisov ◽  
Wil. M.P. van der Aalst

To identify the causes of performance problems or to predict process behavior, it is essential to have correct and complete event data. This is particularly important for distributed systems with shared resources, e.g., one case can block another case competing for the same machine, leading to inter-case dependencies in performance. However, due to a variety of reasons, real-life systems often record only a subset of all events taking place. To understand and analyze the behavior and performance of processes with shared resources, we aim to reconstruct bounds for timestamps of events in a case that must have happened but were not recorded by inference over events in other cases in the system. We formulate and solve the problem by systematically introducing multi-entity concepts in event logs and process models. We introduce a partial-order based model of a multi-entity event log and a corresponding compositional model for multi-entity processes. We define PQR-systems as a special class of multi-entity processes with shared resources and queues. We then study the problem of inferring from an incomplete event log unobserved events and their timestamps that are globally consistent with a PQR-system. We solve the problem by reconstructing unobserved traces of resources and queues according to the PQR-model and derive bounds for their timestamps using a linear program. While the problem is illustrated for material handling systems like baggage handling systems in airports, the approach can be applied to other settings where recording is incomplete. The ideas have been implemented in ProM and were evaluated using both synthetic and real-life event logs.


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