phosphoric acid
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ACS Omega ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vasiliy V. Sergeev ◽  
Olga V. Cheremisina ◽  
Alexander T. Fedorov ◽  
Alexandra A. Gorbacheva ◽  
Daniil A. Balandinsky

Author(s):  
Hyunsoo Kim ◽  
Kanghee Cho ◽  
Oyunbileg Purev ◽  
Nagchoul Choi ◽  
Jaewon Lee

Based on the features of hydrodynamic cavitation, in this study, we developed a washing ejector that utilizes a high-pressure water jet. The cavitating flow was utilized to remove fine particles from contaminated soil. The volume of the contaminants and total metal concentration could be correlated to the fine-particle distribution in the contaminated soil. These particles can combine with a variety of pollutants. In this study, physical separation and soil washing as a two-step soil remediation strategy were performed to remediate contaminated soils from the smelter. A washing ejector was employed for physical separation, whereas phosphoric acid was used as the washing agent. The particles containing toxic heavy metals were composed of metal phase encapsulated in phyllosilicates, and metal phase weakly bound to phyllosilicate surfaces. The washing ejector involves the removal of fine particles bound to coarse particles and the dispersion of soil aggregates. From these results we determined that physical separation using a washing ejector was effective for the treatment of contaminated soil. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was effective in extracting arsenic from contaminated soil in which arsenic was associated with amorphous iron oxides. Thus, the obtained results can provide useful information and technical support for field soil washing for the remediation of soil contaminated by toxic heavy metals through emissions from the mining and ore processing industries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Farhad Sobouti ◽  
Mehdi Aryana ◽  
Sepideh Dadgar ◽  
Reza Alizadeh Navaei ◽  
Vahid Rakhshan

Background. Despite the importance of identifying proper novel porcelain preparation techniques to improve bonding of orthodontic brackets to porcelain surfaces, and despite the highly controversial results on this subject, no systematic review or meta-analysis exists in this regard. Objective. To comparatively summarize the effects of all the available porcelain surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic brackets (metal, ceramic, polycarbonate) bonded to feldspathic porcelain restorations. Search Methods. A search was conducted for articles published between January 1990 and February 2021 in PubMed, MeSH, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and reference lists. Eligibility Criteria. English-language articles comparing SBS of feldspathic porcelain’s surface preparation methods for metal/ceramic/polycarbonate orthodontic brackets were included. Articles comparing silanes/bonding agents/primers without assessing roughening techniques were excluded. Data Analysis. Studies were summarized and risk of bias assessed. Each treatment’s SBS was compared with the 6 and 10 MPa recommended thresholds. Studies including comparator (HF [hydrofluoric acid] + silane + bonding) were candidates for meta-analysis. ARI scores were dichotomized. Fixed- and random-effects models were used and forest plots drawn. Egger regressions and/or funnel plots were used to assess publication biases. Results. Thirty-two studies were included (140 groups of SBS, 82 groups of ARI). Bond strengths of 21 studies were meta-analyzed (64 comparisons in 14 meta-analyses). ARIs of 12 articles were meta-analyzed (28 comparisons in 8 meta-analyses). Certain protocols provided bond strengths poorer than HF + silane + bonding: “abrasion + bonding, diamond bur + bonding, HF + bonding, Nd:YAG laser (1 W) + silane + bonding, CO2 laser (2 W/2 Hz) + silane + bonding, and phosphoric acid + silane + bonding.” Abrasion + HF + silane + bonding might act almost better than HF + silane + bonding. Abrasion + silane + bonding yields controversial results, being slightly (marginally significantly) better than HF + silane + bonding. Some protocols had controversial results with their overall effects being close to HF + silane + bonding: “Cojet + silane + bonding, diamond bur + silane + bonding, Er:YAG laser (1.6 W/20 Hz) + silane + bonding.” Few methods provided bond strengths similar to HF + silane + bonding without much controversy: “Nd:YAG laser (2 W) + silane + bonding” and “phosphoric acid + silane + bonding” (in ceramic brackets). ARIs were either similar to HF + silane + bonding or relatively skewed towards the “no resin on porcelain” end. The risk of bias was rather low. Limitations. All the found studies were in vitro and thus not easily translatable to clinical conditions. Many metasamples were small. Conclusions. The preparation methods HF + silane + bonding, abrasion + HF + silane + bonding, Nd:YAG (2 W) + silane + bonding, and phosphoric acid + silane + bonding (in ceramic brackets) might provide stronger bonds.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Author(s):  
Mohammad Saiful Nidzam ◽  
Md. Sohrab Hossain ◽  
Norli Ismail ◽  
Razam Abdul Latip ◽  
Muhammad Khalish Mohammad Ilias ◽  
...  

The presence of glyceryl esters (GE) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) in refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) palm oil is severely concerning to the palm oil consumer. In the present study, the influence of the phosphoric acid degumming process on the formation of GE and 3-MCDE and in the RBD palm oil was determined with varying the acid dose (0.03–0.06 wt%), temperature (70–100 °C), and reaction time (15–45 min). The experimental conditions of the acid degumming process were designed following the central composite design of experiments, and they were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the minimal formation of GE and 3-MCDE in the RBD palm oil. The optimal experimental conditions of the acid degumming process were a reaction time of 30 min, phosphoric acid concentration of 0.06 wt%, and temperature of 90 °C. Under these experimental conditions, the minimal GE and 3-MCDE formation in RBD palm oil were determined to be 0.61 mg/kg and 0.59 mg/kg; respectively. Several analytical methods were employed to determine RBD palm oil quality, including color, phosphorus, free fatty acids (FFAs), peroxide values, and fatty acid properties. It was found that the phosphoric acid degumming of CPO effectively removed the phosphorus and hydroperoxide content without conceding the quality of palm oil.


RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 1885-1896
Author(s):  
Feng Zhou ◽  
Kai Li ◽  
Fangxue Hang ◽  
Zhiming Zhang ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
...  

Activated-hydrochar (AHC) derived from sugarcane bagasse was synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) using phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as activators.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Liang ◽  
Dong-Sheng Ji ◽  
Guo-Qiang Xu ◽  
Yong-Chun Luo ◽  
Hai-Xue Zheng ◽  
...  

Using diverse carbon-centered radical precursors and electron-rich (hetero)aromatics and alcohols as nucleophiles, a visible-light driven chiral phosphoric acid (CPA) catalyzed asymmetric intermolecular, three-component radical-initiated dicarbofunctionalization and oxytrifluoromethylation of enamines was...


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