fine particles
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2022 ◽  
Vol 231 ◽  
pp. 113178
Mingjun Yang ◽  
Fang Tian ◽  
Shimin Tao ◽  
Minjie Xia ◽  
Yuzhu Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 806 ◽  
pp. 150591
Po-Hsuan Yen ◽  
Chung-Shin Yuan ◽  
Chien-Hsing Wu ◽  
Ming-Jie Yeh ◽  
Yu-Lun Tseng ◽  

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Qi Jiang ◽  
Hengde Zhang ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Fei Wang

Haze is a majorly disastrous type of weather in China, especially central and eastern of China. The development of haze is mainly caused by highly concentrated fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale. Here, we present the results from an autumn and winter study conducted from 2013 to 2020 in seven highly polluted areas (27 representative stations) in central and eastern China to analyze the growth mechanism of PM2.5. At the same time, taking Beijing Station as an example, the characteristics of aerosol composition and particle size in the growth phase are analyzed. Taking into account the regional and inter-annual differences of fine particles (PM2.5) distribution, the local average PM2.5 growth value of the year is used as the boundary value for dividing slow, rapid, and explosive growth (only focuses on the hourly growth rate greater than 0). The average value of PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of each regional representative station shows a decreasing trend as a whole, especially after 2017, whereby the decreasing trend was significant. The distribution value of +ΔPM2.5 (PM2.5 hourly growth rate) in the north of the Huai River is lower than that in the south of the Huai River, and both of the +ΔPM2.5 after 2017 showed a significant decreasing trend. The average PM2.5 threshold before the explosive growth is 70.8 µg m−3, and the threshold that is extremely prone to explosive growth is 156 µg m−3 to 277 µg m−3 in north of the Huai River. For the area south of the Huai River, the threshold for PM2.5 explosive growth is relatively low, as a more stringent threshold also puts forward stricter requirements on atmospheric environmental governance. For example, in Beijing, the peak diameters gradually shift to larger sizes when the growth rate increases. The number concentration increasing mainly distributed in Aitken mode (AIM) and Accumulation mode (ACM) during explosive growth. Among the various components of submicron particulate matter (PM1), organic aerosol (OA), especially primary OA (POA), have become one of the most critical components for the PM2.5 explosive growth in Beijing. During the growth period, the contribution of secondary particulate matter (SPM) to the accumulated pollutants is significantly higher than that of primary particulate matter (PPM). However, the proportion of SPM gradually decreases when the growth rate increases. The contribution of the PPM can reach 48% in explosive growth. Compared to slow and rapid growth, explosive growth mainly occurs in the stable atmosphere of higher humidity, lower pressure, lower temperature, small winds, and low mixed layers.

Ashish Kumar ◽  
R. S. Rana ◽  
Rajesh Purohit

Abstract Ceramic particulate embedded aluminum metal matrix nanocomposites (AMNCs) possess superior mechanical and surface properties and lightweight features. AMNCs are a suitable replacement of traditional material, i.e., steel, to make automotive parts. The current work deals with developing Si3N4 strengthened high strength AA7068 nanocomposites via novel ultrasonic-assisted stir casting method advanced with bottom pouring setup in the proportion of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 wt.%. Planetary ball milling was performed on a mixture of AA7068 powder and Si3N4 (in the proportion of 3:1) before incorporation in aluminum alloy melt to avoid rejection of fine particles. Finite element scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Elemental mapping techniques were used in the microstructural investigation. Significant grain refinement was observed with increasing reinforcing content, whereas agglomeration was found at higher weight %. Hardness, Tensile strength, ductility, porosity content, compressive strength, and impact energy were also examined of pure alloy and each composite. Improvement of 72.71%, 50.07%, and 27.41 % was noticed in hardness value, tensile strength, and compressive strength, respectively, at 1.5 weight % compared to base alloy because of various strengthening mechanisms. These properties are decreased at 2wt.% due to severe agglomeration. In contrast, nanocomposite's ductility and impact strength continuously decrease compared to monolithic AA7068. Fracture analysis shows the ductile and mixed failure mode in alloy and nanocomposites.

2022 ◽  
Mingkun Pang ◽  
Tianjun Zhang ◽  
Rongtao Liu ◽  
Haotian Wang

Abstract Particle loss is the root cause for the occurrence of Karst Collapse Pillars (KCP) sudden water events. The pore adjustment of KCP filler will further induce seepage destabilization, and it is also a process that sudden water catastrophe must go through. In order to investigate the direct relationship between stress conditions, water pressure conditions, and gradation structure on the pore structure of rock samples, the steady-state percolation method was used to investigate the percolation test system of variable-mass crushed rock masses. The results show that: 1) the structural characteristics of rock grains under the same stress environment are closely related to their extrusion fragmentation process and the softening and scouring effect of water. Rubbing, rotating, fracturing, grinding and plugging are the main forms of action of their intergranular action. 2) The filling particles before and after the loss meet the fractal law and have fractal characteristics. 3) The percentage of fine particles in the whole process of infiltration loss is as high as 34.4%. The adjustment of pore structure is related to the particle size gradation, and the reciprocal action of water flow will form a stable water-conducting channel. 4) The sudden water process of the specimen under particle loss can be divided into three stages: initial seepage, catastrophic destabilization and pipe flow surge.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 465-479
Juanjuan Qin ◽  
Jihua Tan ◽  
Xueming Zhou ◽  
Yanrong Yang ◽  
Yuanyuan Qin ◽  

Abstract. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) play important roles in atmospheric particle formation, migration, and transformation processes. Size-segregated atmospheric particles were collected in a rural area of Beijing. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the optical properties of WSOCs as a means of inferring information about their atmospheric sources. Sophisticated analysis on fluorescence data was performed to characteristically estimate the connections among particles of different sizes. WSOC concentrations and the average fluorescence intensity (AFI) showed a monomodal distribution in winter and a bimodal distribution in summer, with the dominant mode in the 0.26–0.44 µm size range in both seasons. The excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectra of WSOCs varied with particle size, likely due to changing sources and/or the chemical transformation of organics. Size distributions of the fluorescence regional integration (regions III and V) and humification index (HIX) indicate that the humification degree or aromaticity of WSOCs was the highest in the particle size range of 0.26–0.44 µm. The Stokes shift (SS) and the harmonic mean of the excitation and emission wavelengths (WH) reflected that π-conjugated systems were high in the same particle size range. The parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) results showed that humic-like substances were abundant in fine particles (< 1 µm) and peaked at 0.26–0.44 µm. All evidence supported the fact that the humification degree of WSOCs increased with particle size in the submicron mode (< 0.44 µm) and then decreased gradually with particle size, which implied that the condensation of organics occurred in submicron particles, resulting in the highest degree of humification in the particle size range of 0.26–0.44 µm rather than in the < 0.26 µm range. Synthetically analyzing three-dimensional fluorescence data could efficiently reveal the secondary transformation processes of WSOCs.

Muhammad Aslam Md Yusof ◽  
Yen Adams Sokama Neuyam ◽  
Mohamad Arif Ibrahim ◽  
Ismail M. Saaid ◽  
Ahmad Kamal Idris ◽  

AbstractRe-injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline formation is a promising approach to allow high CO2 gas fields to be developed in the Southeast Asia region. However, the solubility between CO2 and formation water could cause injectivity problems such as salt precipitation and fines migration. Although both mechanisms have been widely investigated individually, the coupled effect of both mechanisms has not been studied experimentally. This research work aims to quantify CO2 injectivity alteration induced by both mechanisms through core-flooding experiments. The quantification injectivity impairment induced by both mechanisms were achieved by varying parameters such as brine salinity (6000–100,000 ppm) and size of fine particles (0–0.015 µm) while keeping other parameters constant, flow rate (2 cm3/min), fines concentration (0.3 wt%) and salt type (Sodium chloride). The core-flooding experiments were carried out on quartz-rich sister sandstone cores under a two-step sequence. In order to simulate the actual sequestration process while also controlling the amount and sizes of fines, mono-dispersed silicon dioxide in CO2-saturated brine was first injected prior to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injection. The CO2 injectivity alteration was calculated using the ratio between the permeability change and the initial permeability. Results showed that there is a direct correlation between salinity and severity of injectivity alteration due to salt precipitation. CO2 injectivity impairment increased from 6 to 26.7% when the salinity of brine was raised from 6000 to 100,000 ppm. The findings also suggest that fines migration during CO2 injection would escalate the injectivity impairment. The addition of 0.3 wt% of 0.005 µm fine particles in the CO2-saturated brine augmented the injectivity alteration by 1% to 10%, increasing with salt concentration. Furthermore, at similar fines concentration and brine salinity, larger fines size of 0.015 µm in the pore fluid further induced up to three-fold injectivity alteration compared to the damage induced by salt precipitation. At high brine salinity, injectivity reduction was highest as more precipitated salts reduced the pore spaces, increasing the jamming ratio. Therefore, more particles were blocked and plugged at the slimmer pore throats. The findings are the first experimental work conducted to validate theoretical modelling results reported on the combined effect of salt precipitation and fines mobilisation on CO2 injectivity. These pioneering results could improve understanding of CO2 injectivity impairment in deep saline reservoirs and serve as a foundation to develop a more robust numerical study in field scale.

Karolina Bralewska ◽  
Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska ◽  
Dominika Mucha ◽  
Artur Jerzy Badyda ◽  
Magdalena Kostrzon ◽  

This study aimed to evaluate the mass concentration of size-resolved (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, PM100) particulate matter (PM) in the Wieliczka Salt Mine located in southern Poland, compare them with the concentrations of the same PM fractions in the atmospheric air, and estimate the dose of dry salt aerosol inhaled by the mine visitors. Measurements were conducted for 2 hours a day, simultaneously inside (tourist route, passage to the health resort, health resort) and outside the mine (duty-room), for three days in the summer of 2017 using DustTrak DRX devices (optical method). The highest average PM concentrations were recorded on the tourist route (54–81 µg/m3), while the lowest was in the passage to the health resort (49–62 µg/m3). At the same time, the mean outdoor PM concentrations were 14–20 µg/m3. Fine particles constituting the majority of PM mass (68–80%) in the mine originated from internal sources, while the presence of coarse particles was associated with tourist traffic. High PM deposition factors in the respiratory tract of children and adults estimated for particular mine chambers (0.58–0.70), the predominance of respirable particles in PM mass, and the high content of NaCl in PM composition indicate high health benefits for mine visitors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jung Joon Park ◽  
Gi Joon Park ◽  
Moon Kyung Kim ◽  
Wooseok Yeo ◽  
Jin Chul Joo ◽  

A porous photocatalyst concrete filter (deNOx PCF) is successfully manufactured to reduce NOx by mixing TiO2 photocatalyst with lightweight aerated concrete. From the results, 4% infusion rate of each foaming agent provided the smallest change of the height, and the optimal quality of the air bubbles can be produced by using foaming agent B with 4% of infusion rate. When 3% of TiO2 photocatalyst was mixed, less irregular and relatively homogeneous pores were formed on the surface with white color due to the proper amount of photocatalyst applied. For 3% of photocatalyst mixed with deNOx PCF, 1.03 μmol/hr of NO was reduced equivalent to 10.99% of NO reduction, suggesting that the TiO2 photocatalyst dispersed in the continuous and well-developed pores inside the specimen successfully performed the removal of NO flowing through deNOx PCF using synergistic effects of adsorption and photodegradation reaction. Finally, the specimen of porous deNOx PCF for reducing NOx developed in this study can be applied to various construction sites and the air quality can be solved by reducing NOx contributing to the formation of fine particles.

Hyunsoo Kim ◽  
Kanghee Cho ◽  
Oyunbileg Purev ◽  
Nagchoul Choi ◽  
Jaewon Lee

Based on the features of hydrodynamic cavitation, in this study, we developed a washing ejector that utilizes a high-pressure water jet. The cavitating flow was utilized to remove fine particles from contaminated soil. The volume of the contaminants and total metal concentration could be correlated to the fine-particle distribution in the contaminated soil. These particles can combine with a variety of pollutants. In this study, physical separation and soil washing as a two-step soil remediation strategy were performed to remediate contaminated soils from the smelter. A washing ejector was employed for physical separation, whereas phosphoric acid was used as the washing agent. The particles containing toxic heavy metals were composed of metal phase encapsulated in phyllosilicates, and metal phase weakly bound to phyllosilicate surfaces. The washing ejector involves the removal of fine particles bound to coarse particles and the dispersion of soil aggregates. From these results we determined that physical separation using a washing ejector was effective for the treatment of contaminated soil. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was effective in extracting arsenic from contaminated soil in which arsenic was associated with amorphous iron oxides. Thus, the obtained results can provide useful information and technical support for field soil washing for the remediation of soil contaminated by toxic heavy metals through emissions from the mining and ore processing industries.

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