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Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2964
Author(s):  
Yaqi Zhao ◽  
Jinhua Zuo ◽  
Shuzhi Yuan ◽  
Wenlin Shi ◽  
Junyan Shi ◽  
...  

This study examines ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment supplementation as a means of inhibiting the senescence of pepino fruit after harvest. Pepino fruits were subjected to 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatments and then packed and stored at 10 °C for 28 d. Results showed that 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment had the greatest ability to maintain firmness, and reduced the level of respiration and ethylene production. Further analysis indicated that the 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment maintained the content of total soluble solids (TSS), chlorophyll, vitamin C, flavonoids, and total phenolics. Lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activity were found in UV-C treated fruit during storage. An electronic nose (E-nose) and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) was used to determine volatile compounds. Results revealed that the UV-C treatment may promote the synthesis of a large number of alcohols and esters by maintaining the overall level of acids, aldehydes, and esters in fruits. This may contribute to the maintenance of the flavor of harvested fruits. In conclusion, 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for the maintenance of the sensory, nutritional, and flavor parameters of pepino fruit.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2962
Author(s):  
Lin Zhu ◽  
Zhaozhi Hou ◽  
Xinyu Hu ◽  
Xu Liu ◽  
Tian Dai ◽  
...  

Inner Mongolian cheese is a traditional dairy product in China. It is produced without rennet, using naturally acidified milk that is simmered to achieve whey separation. In order to analyse the impact of simmering on the microbial community structure, high-throughput sequencing was performed to obtain bacterial 16S rRNA sequences from cheeses from the Ordos (ES), Ulanqab (WS), Horqin (KS) and Xilingol (XS) grasslands of Inner Mongolia. The relative abundance of an unexpected microorganism, Thermus thermophilus, ranged from 2% to 9%, which meant that its dominance was second only to that of lactic acid bacteria (LABs). Genome sequencing and fermentation validation were performed in T. thermophilus N-1 isolated from the Ordos, and it was determined that T. thermophilus N-1 could ingest and metabolise lactose in milk to produce lactate during the simmering process. T. thermophilus N-1 could also produce acetate, propionate, citrate and other organic acids through a unique acetate production pathway and a complete propionate production pathway and TCA cycle, which may affect texture and flavour development in Inner Mongolian cheese. Simultaneously, the large amount of citrate produced by T. thermophilus N-1 provides a necessary carbon source for continuous fermentation by LABs after the simmering step. Therefore, T. thermophilus N-1 contributes to cheese fermentation as a predominant, thermophilic, assistant starter microorganism unique to Chinese Inner Mongolian cheese.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2965
Author(s):  
Nandita Keshri ◽  
Ingo Truppel ◽  
Manfred Linke ◽  
Martin Geyer ◽  
Cornelia Weltzien ◽  
...  

Adjusting beneficial gas concentrations in real time in response to changing storage conditions is important for fresh produce, especially throughout the supply chain when temperature abuse occurs frequently. In this study, a controlled-ventilated box for bulk transportation of fresh produce was demonstrated and tested under variable temperatures. The presented system comprised a rigid container with a miniature blower installed in the opening of its wall for facilitating the gas exchange and an additional wall opening with a metal tube protruding into the inner container’s space. The in-package atmosphere was formed by the balance between the respiratory activity of the produce and the influx of fresh air through the wall openings, regulated by switching the blower ON or OFF. The mass transfer coefficient for metal tubes of different dimensions was measured under modified atmosphere featuring 15% CO2 and 5% O2 at 10 °C. The addition of an air blower increased the mass transfer coefficient by at least 100 times. A further storage trial with cherries was successfully performed at 10 °C and 20 °C. The demonstrated trial featured some significant inputs to increase the knowledge about better storage of fresh produce throughout the supply chain and storage.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2963
Author(s):  
Reagan N. Cauble ◽  
Jase J. Ball ◽  
Virginia E. Zorn ◽  
Tristan M. Reyes ◽  
Madison P. Wagoner ◽  
...  

M. biceps femoris (BF), m. semimembranosus (SM) and m. semitendinosus (ST) from fresh pork ham were evaluated for characteristics of quality after cooking to an internal endpoint temperature of 62 °C or 73 °C. Fresh ham muscles from the left side (N = 68) were cut into 2.54 cm thick chops and allocated to cooking loss, Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH and instrumental cooked color analysis. Cooking losses were greater (p < 0.0001) for SM and chops cooked to an internal temperature of 73 °C (p < 0.0001), whereas WBSF did not differ (p = 0.2509) among the three muscles, but was greater (p < 0.0001) in chops cooked to 73 °C. Fresh muscle’s pH was greater (p < 0.05) in ST than BF or SM. Lastly, the interactive effect (p < 0.05) of muscle × endpoint temperature for ST chops cooked to 73 °C was lighter (L*), but, when cooked to 62 °C, they were more red (a*), more yellow (b*) and incurred less color change from red to brown than BF or SM. The current results suggest it is plausible for BF, SM and ST to be considered for alternative uses instead of traditional value-added manufacturing.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2956
Author(s):  
Xiaoqin Wu ◽  
Jiawei Yuan ◽  
Xiaoqing Wang ◽  
Mingliang Yu ◽  
Ruijuan Ma ◽  
...  

Peach is a putrescible fruit thus drastically restricting its postharvest storage life. In recent years, the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and nitric oxide (NO) in postharvest fruit quality control has received considerable attention and investigative efforts due to the advantages of using relatively low concentrations and short-time treatment duration. In the present study, the effects of various 1-MCP and NO treatments on peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. Xiahui-8) stored at 25 °C were evaluated and compared. Results indicated that the combination treatment with both chemical agents (MN) was most effective in postponing peach ripening and preserving fruit quality, followed by 1-MCP and NO treatment alone. We also demonstrated that NO could delay fruit senescence mainly by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, while 1-MCP overly outperformed NO in the treatment of ‘Xiahui-8′ peach in slowing down respiration rate, inhibiting ethylene production, maintaining high firmness and reducing ROS content. NO treatment showed a greater influence on phenolic compounds than 1-MCP especially anthocyanins, flavanones and flavones according to LC/MS analysis. The phenolic change in MN group were highly associated to NO treatment. Through this study we provide informative physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence for the beneficial effects of the combined 1-MCP and NO treatment on peach fruit based on a functional synergy between these two chemical agents.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2959
Author(s):  
Anyan Wen ◽  
Yong Zhu ◽  
Muhammad Mazhar ◽  
Likang Qin ◽  
Haiying Zeng ◽  
...  

Dehulled adlay was fermented with Bacillus subtilis BJ3-2, the anti-proliferative activities of the extracts from fermented dehulled adlay were investigated with six types of tumor cells, and then the bioactive components and the anti-proliferative mechanism were primarily explored. Results showed that all the extracts of B. subtilis-fermented dehulled adlay (BDA) and dehulled adlay (DA) had no inhibition effect on human embryonic kidney 239T cells. The anti-proliferative activities of the extracts from BDA against six types of tumor cells were almost always significantly higher than DA. Compared with others, the n-butanol extract of BDA (BDA-Nb) exhibited stronger anti-proliferative activities against human leukemia K562 cells and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Importantly, the anti-proliferative activity of fermented dehulled adlay against K562 cells was firstly discovered. Meanwhile, BDA-Nb was rich in tetramethylpyrazine, γ-aminobutyric acid, protocatechuic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, trans-cinnamic, ferulic acids, and rutin. BDA-Nb induced the proliferative inhibition of K562 and A549 cells due to abnormal cell morphology, the increased cell population in G1 phase and apoptosis rate, the downregulation of Bcl-2, and the upregulation of Bax and caspase-3/8/9. These results indicate that dehulled adlay fermented with B. subtilis could be a potential therapeutic agent for leukemia and lung cancer.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2958
Author(s):  
Angelo Baccelloni ◽  
Andrea Giambarresi ◽  
Marco Francesco Mazzù

In the context of the ongoing debate on front-of-pack labels (FOPL), extant research highlights a lack of clear indications on which label is most effective in increasing consumers’ knowledge of food nutritional quality, and in favoring informed food choices. In this study, we have compared the effects of two different labels, one nutrient-specific label (i.e., NutrInform Battery) and one summary label (i.e., Nutri-Score), in terms of consumers’ “subjective understanding” and “liking”. Our work advances prior research on FOPL performance by focusing on two different countries—which have different socio-political contexts and which, from previous studies, present limited evidence on the topic—Slovenia, currently utilizing the Protective Food logo, and the Netherlands, who has recently adopted the Nutri-Score. The study also confirms, in line with previous research, a higher effectiveness of the nutrient-specific label, NutrInform Battery, on all analyzed dimensions in tested countries, when compared to the summary label, Nutri-Score.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2960
Author(s):  
Karoliny Brito Sampaio ◽  
Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues de Albuquerque ◽  
Noádia Priscila Araújo Rodrigues ◽  
Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira ◽  
Evandro Leite de Souza

Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex. K. Schum.) Bly. ex Rowl., popularly known as xique-xique, is a cactus from the Caatinga biome, which is rich in bioactive compounds but has not been previously studied as a source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic aptitudes. This study aimed to identify, characterize, and select LAB isolates with in vitro probiotic-related characteristics from xique-xique cladodes and fruit. Isolates with the most promising probiotic-related characteristics were evaluated regarding their in vitro technological properties and capability of surviving in chestnut milk, whey protein drink, and mate tea with mint during 21 days of refrigeration storage. Seventeen recovered isolates had typical characteristics of LAB. Six out of these seventeen LAB isolates passed the safety tests and were included in experiments to evaluate the in vitro probiotic-related characteristics. Based on the results of a principal component analysis, the isolates 69, 82, 98, and 108 had the best performances in experiments to evaluate the probiotic-related characteristics. In addition to showing good technological properties, the four selected LAB isolates had high viable counts (>7.3 log cfu/mL) and high sizes of physiologically active cell subpopulations in chestnut milk, whey protein drink, and mate tea during refrigeration storage. These four isolates were identified by 16S-rRNA sequencing as being Lacticaseibacillus paracasei or Lacticaseibacillus casei. The results indicate xique-xique as a source of potentially probiotic LAB isolates.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2961
Author(s):  
David Miguel Ribeiro ◽  
Cátia Falcão Martins ◽  
Mónica Costa ◽  
Diogo Coelho ◽  
José Pestana ◽  
...  

Seaweeds have caught the attention of the scientific community in recent years. Their production can mitigate the negative impact of anthropogenic activity and their use in animal nutrition reduces the dependency on conventional crops such as maize and soybean meal. In the context of monogastric animals, novel approaches have made it possible to optimise their use in feed, namely polysaccharide extraction, biomass fermentation, enzymatic processing, and feed supplementation with carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Their bioactive properties make them putative candidates as feed ingredients that enhance meat quality traits, such as lipid oxidation, shelf-life, and meat colour. Indeed, they are excellent sources of essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and pigments that can be transferred to the meat of monogastric animals. However, their nutritional composition is highly variable, depending on species, harvesting region, local pollution, and harvesting season, among other factors. In this review, we assess the current use and challenges of using seaweeds in pig and poultry diets, envisaging to improve meat quality and its nutritional value.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2951
Author(s):  
Qian Li ◽  
Ying Zhao ◽  
Yanli Xie

Paeonol can effectively inhibit Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) via damaging cell walls. In this work, paeonol treatment remarkably destroyed both the outer amorphous layer and the inner fibrous layer of cell walls. Furthermore, FT-IR and XPS characterization showed that OH functional groups were altered and proteins in the outer layer were released. According to proteomic analysis, 605 proteins have been identified and annotated. The activities of β-1,3-glucan synthase and chitinase were prohibited and promoted, respectively, by paeonol treatment, however, the activities of β-1,3-glucanase and chitin synthase were not influenced. QRT-PCR results suggested that FKSP, CHIIII, and CHIV genes might be the antifungal targets of paeonol. In addition, paeonol can effectively restrain the pathogenicity of A. flavus on peanut butter. This study provided a new elucidation on the mode of action of paeonol against cell walls of A. flavus, facilitating the application of paeonol in the preservation of agricultural products.


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