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Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 233
Author(s):  
Rosangela Marasco ◽  
Mariagiovanna Gazzillo ◽  
Nicoletta Campolattano ◽  
Margherita Sacco ◽  
Lidia Muscariello

In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Author(s):  
Erika Dobroslavić ◽  
Maja Repajić ◽  
Verica Dragović-Uzelac ◽  
Ivona Elez Garofulić

In recent years, the market demand for products enhanced with ingredients derived from natural products, such as polyphenols, is rapidly increasing. Laurus nobilis L., known as bay, sweet bay, bay laurel, Roman laurel or daphne is an evergreen Mediterranean shrub whose leaves have traditionally been used in cuisines and folk medicine due to their beneficial health effects, which can nowadays be scientifically explained by various biological activities of the leaf extracts. Many of these activities can be attributed to phenolic compounds present in L. nobilis leaves which include flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins (proanthocyanidins) and lignans. In order to enable efficient industrial utilization of these valuable compounds, it is crucial to establish optimal extraction procedures resulting in the highest yields and quality of the extracts. This paper offers the first systematic review of current literature on the influence of conventional and advanced extraction techniques, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, enzyme-assisted, supercritical-CO2 and mechanochemical-assisted extraction on the phenolic content of L. nobilis leaf extracts, allowing more efficient planning of further research and simplifying the steps towards industrial utilization of this plant.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 232
Author(s):  
Hanim Z. Amanah ◽  
Salma Sultana Tunny ◽  
Rudiati Evi Masithoh ◽  
Myoung-Gun Choung ◽  
Kyung-Hwan Kim ◽  
...  

The demand for rapid and nondestructive methods to determine chemical components in food and agricultural products is proliferating due to being beneficial for screening food quality. This research investigates the feasibility of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to predict total as well as an individual type of isoflavones and oligosaccharides using intact soybean samples. A partial least square regression method was performed to develop models based on the spectral data of 310 soybean samples, which were synchronized to the reference values evaluated using a conventional assay. Furthermore, the obtained models were tested using soybean varieties not initially involved in the model construction. As a result, the best prediction models of FT-NIR were allowed to predict total isoflavones and oligosaccharides using intact seeds with acceptable performance (R2p: 0.80 and 0.72), which were slightly better than the model obtained based on FT-IR data (R2p: 0.73 and 0.70). The results also demonstrate the possibility of using FT-NIR to predict individual types of evaluated components, denoted by acceptable performance values of prediction model (R2p) of over 0.70. In addition, the result of the testing model proved the model’s performance by obtaining a similar R2 and error to the calibration model.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 234
Author(s):  
Manman Liu ◽  
Qingqing Chen ◽  
Yalian Sun ◽  
Lingzhou Zeng ◽  
Hongchen Wu ◽  
...  

Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, which fortify folate in situ and regulate intestinal microbiota. In this study, the folate production potential of newly isolated strains from raw milk was analyzed by microbiological assay. Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 showed the highest folate production in Folic Acid Assay Broth, 239.70 ± 0.03 ng/μL. The folate produced by LZ217 was identified as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. LZ217 was tolerant to environmental stresses (temperature, pH, NaCl, and ethanol), and was resistant to gastrointestinal juices. Additionally, the in vitro effects of LZ217 on human gut microbiota were investigated by fecal slurry cultures. 16S rDNA gene sequencing indicated that fermented samples containing LZ217 significantly increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus 2, Butyricicoccus compared to not containing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis revealed that LZ217 also increased the production of butyric acid by fermentation. Together, L. sakei LZ217 could be considered as a probiotic candidate to fortify folate and regulate intestinal microecology.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 230
Author(s):  
Tanja Kakko ◽  
Annelie Damerau ◽  
Anni Nisov ◽  
Anna Puganen ◽  
Saska Tuomasjukka ◽  
...  

Fractionation is a potential way to valorize under-utilized fishes, but the quality of the resulting fractions is crucial in terms of their applicability. The aim of this work was to study the quality of protein isolates and hydrolysates extracted from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) using either pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis. The amino acid composition of protein isolates and hydrolysates mostly complied with the nutritional requirements for adults, but protein isolates produced using pH shift showed higher essential to non-essential amino acid ratios compared with enzymatically produced hydrolysates, 0.84–0.85 vs. 0.65–0.70, respectively. Enzymatically produced protein hydrolysates had a lower total lipid content, lower proportion of phospholipids, and exhibited lower degrees of protein and lipid oxidation compared with pH-shift-produced isolates. These findings suggest enzymatic hydrolysis to be more promising from a lipid oxidation perspective while the pH-shift method ranked higher from a nutrient perspective. However, due to the different applications of protein isolates and hydrolysates produced using pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, the further optimization of both studied methods is recommended.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 228
Author(s):  
Natalia Rosa-Sibakov ◽  
Maria Julia de Oliveira Carvalho ◽  
Martina Lille ◽  
Emilia Nordlund

Oat bran is a nutritionally rich ingredient, but it is underutilized in semi-moist and liquid foods due to technological issues such as high viscosity and sliminess. The aim of this work was to improve the technological properties of oat bran concentrate (OBC) in high-moisture food applications by enzymatic and mechanical treatments. OBC was hydrolyzed with β-glucanase (OBC-Hyd) and the water-soluble fraction (OBC-Sol) was separated. OBC, OBC-Hyd and OBC-Sol were further microfluidized at 5% dry matter content. Enzymatic treatment and microfluidization of OBC reduced the molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan from 2748 kDa to 893 and 350 kDa, respectively, as well as the average particle size of OBC (3.4 and 35 times, respectively). Both treatments increased the extractability of the soluble compounds from the OBC samples (up to 80%) and affected their water retention capacity. OBC in suspension had very high viscosity (969 mPa·s) when heated, which decreased after both enzyme and microfluidization treatments. The colloidal stability of the OBC in suspension was improved, especially after microfluidization. The addition of OBC samples to acid milk gels decreased syneresis, improved the water holding capacity and softened the texture. The changes in the suspension and gel characteristics were linked with reduced β-glucan Mw and OBC particle size.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 229
Author(s):  
Sijie Mi ◽  
Minquan Xia ◽  
Xinyue Zhang ◽  
Jihong Liu ◽  
Zhaoxia Cai

Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) are gel-like concentrated emulsions that have the potential to be an alternative to partially hydrogenated oil (PHO). In this study, egg yolk granules (EYGs), natural complexes of protein and lipid isolated from egg yolk, were used as an emulsifier to prepare Pickering HIPEs. Gel-like HIPEs with an oil phase volume fraction of 85% and with an emulsifier concentration of only 0.5% could be prepared by using EYGs as an emulsifier. The EYGs were able to form stable HIPEs at NaCl ionic strengths over 0.2 M and at pH over 5.0 with NaCl ionic strength of 0.3 M. The EYGs, which could stabilize HIPEs, were easily to adsorb and cover the oil-water interface to form emulsion droplets with small particle size. In addition, interacting EYGs in the aqueous phase formed a continuous network structure, and the oil droplets packed closely, exhibiting high elasticity and shear thinning behavior. Furthermore, the formed HIPEs had suitable storage stability with no significant changes in appearance and microstructure after storage for 60 days. This work can transform traditional oils from liquid-like to solid-like by using EYGs to enrich food processing diversity and improve the storage stability of oils while reducing the intake of PHO and providing a healthier diet for consumers.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 231
Author(s):  
Ji Eun Kim ◽  
Ji Yeon Lee ◽  
Chang-Ho Kang

Hyperglycemia due to uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely known as cause of diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and other complications. NAFLD refers to a condition in which fat is excessively accumulated, whether inflamed or not, and has caused serious medical problems in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the antihyperglycemia effects of Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4295 (L. fermentum MG4295) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced in vivo. We demonstrated the suitability of L. fermentum MG4295 as a probiotic by observing its stability, survivability, and proliferation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and safety, antibiotic susceptibility, hemolysis, and enzyme activity. The potential antihyperglycemic activity of L. fermentum MG4295 was investigated in an HFD and sugar-water-induced mouse model. Administration of this strain for 12 weeks showed an improved trend in glucose tolerance, insulin, alanine amino transferase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucagon-like peptide-1. Histopathological analysis revealed that L. fermentum MG4295 significantly reduced the histopathological scores of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular hypertrophy in liver tissues and lipid content in adipose tissues. Administration of L. fermentum MG4295 upregulated IRS-1, AKT, and GLUT4 and downregulated G6Pc and PEPCK expression in liver and/or muscle tissues. Our results suggest that L. fermentum MG4295 can improve hyperglycemia. Furthermore, it can be used as a dietary functional supplement to manage blood glucose.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 227
Author(s):  
Nadine Seubelt ◽  
Amelie Michalke ◽  
Tobias Gaugler

In a case study of Germany, we examine current food consumption along the three pillars of sustainability to evaluate external factors that influence consumers’ dietary decisions. We investigate to what extent diets meet nutritional requirements (social factor), the diets’ environmental impact (ecological factor), and the food prices’ influence on purchasing behavior (economic factor). For this, we compare two dietary recommendations (plant-based, omnivorous) with the status quo, and we examine different consumption styles (conventional, organic produce). Additionally, we evaluate 1446 prices of food items from three store types (organic store, supermarket, and discounter). With this, we are able to evaluate and compare 30 different food baskets along their health, environmental, and economic impact. Results show that purchasing decisions are only slightly influenced by health-related factors. Furthermore, few consumers align their diet with low environmental impact. In contrast, a large share of consumers opt for cheap foods, regardless of health and environmental consequences. We find that price is, arguably, the main factor in food choices from a sustainability standpoint. Action should be taken by policy makers to financially incentivize consumers in favor of healthy and environmentally friendly diets. Otherwise, the status quo further drives especially underprivileged consumers towards unhealthy and environmentally damaging consumption.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 223
Author(s):  
Milan Houška ◽  
Filipa Vinagre Marques Silva ◽  
Evelyn ◽  
Roman Buckow ◽  
Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe ◽  
...  

High pressure processing (HPP) is a cold pasteurization technology by which products, prepacked in their final package, are introduced to a vessel and subjected to a high level of isostatic pressure (300–600 MPa). High-pressure treatment of fruit, vegetable and fresh herb homogenate products offers us nearly fresh products in regard to sensorial and nutritional quality of original raw materials, representing relatively stable and safe source of nutrients, vitamins, minerals and health effective components. Such components can play an important role as a preventive tool against the start of illnesses, namely in the elderly. An overview of several food HPP products, namely of fruit and vegetable origin, marketed successfully around the world is presented. Effects of HPP and HPP plus heat on key spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including the resistant spore form and fruit/vegetable endogenous enzymes are reviewed, including the effect on the product quality. Part of the paper is devoted to the industrial equipment available for factories manufacturing HPP treated products.


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