drug discovery
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2022 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 114-126
Xiangxiang Zeng ◽  
Xinqi Tu ◽  
Yuansheng Liu ◽  
Xiangzheng Fu ◽  
Yansen Su

2022 ◽  
Amir Akhgari ◽  
Bikash Baral ◽  
Arina Koroleva ◽  
Vilja Siitonen ◽  
David P Fewer ◽  

Actinomycetes are important producers of pharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. However, wild type strains require laborious development prior to industrial usage. Here we present a generally applicable reporter-guided metabolic engineering tool based on random mutagenesis, selective pressure, and single-cell sorting. We developed fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) methodology capable of reproducibly identifying high-performing individual cells from a mutant population directly from liquid cultures. Genome-mining based drug discovery is a promising source of bioactive compounds, which is complicated by the observation that target metabolic pathways may be silent under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate our technology for drug discovery by activating a silent mutaxanthene metabolic pathway in Amycolatopsis. We apply the method for industrial strain development and increase mutaxanthene yields 9-fold to 99 mg l-1 in a second round of mutant selection. Actinomycetes are an important source of catabolic enzymes, where product yields determine industrial viability. We demonstrate 5-fold yield improvement with an industrial cholesterol oxidase ChoD producer Streptomyces lavendulae to 20.4 U g-1 in three rounds. Strain development is traditionally followed by production medium optimization, which is a time-consuming multi-parameter problem that may require hard to source ingredients. Ultra-high throughput screening allowed us to circumvent medium optimization and we identified high ChoD yield production strains directly from mutant libraries grown under preset culture conditions. In summary, the ability to screen tens of millions of mutants in a single cell format offers broad applicability for metabolic engineering of actinomycetes for activation of silent metabolic pathways and to increase yields of proteins and natural products.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Nawale Hajjaji ◽  
Soulaimane Aboulouard ◽  
Tristan Cardon ◽  
Delphine Bertin ◽  
Yves-Marie Robin ◽  

Integrating tumor heterogeneity in the drug discovery process is a key challenge to tackle breast cancer resistance. Identifying protein targets for functionally distinct tumor clones is particularly important to tailor therapy to the heterogeneous tumor subpopulations and achieve clonal theranostics. For this purpose, we performed an unsupervised, label-free, spatially resolved shotgun proteomics guided by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) on 124 selected tumor clonal areas from early luminal breast cancers, tumor stroma, and breast cancer metastases. 2868 proteins were identified. The main protein classes found in the clonal proteome dataset were enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, membrane-traffic, translational or scaffold proteins, or transporters. As a comparison, gene-specific transcriptional regulators, chromatin related proteins or transmembrane signal receptor were more abundant in the TCGA dataset. Moreover, 26 mutated proteins have been identified. Similarly, expanding the search to alternative proteins databases retrieved 126 alternative proteins in the clonal proteome dataset. Most of these alternative proteins were coded mainly from non-coding RNA. To fully understand the molecular information brought by our approach and its relevance to drug target discovery, the clonal proteomic dataset was further compared to the TCGA breast cancer database and two transcriptomic panels, BC360 (nanoString®) and CDx (Foundation One®). We retrieved 139 pathways in the clonal proteome dataset. Only 55% of these pathways were also present in the TCGA dataset, 68% in BC360 and 50% in CDx. Seven of these pathways have been suggested as candidate for drug targeting, 22 have been associated with breast cancer in experimental or clinical reports, the remaining 19 pathways have been understudied in breast cancer. Among the anticancer drugs, 35 drugs matched uniquely with the clonal proteome dataset, with only 7 of them already approved in breast cancer. The number of target and drug interactions with non-anticancer drugs (such as agents targeting the cardiovascular system, metabolism, the musculoskeletal or the nervous systems) was higher in the clonal proteome dataset (540 interactions) compared to TCGA (83 interactions), BC360 (419 interactions), or CDx (172 interactions). Many of the protein targets identified and drugs screened were clinically relevant to breast cancer and are in clinical trials. Thus, we described the non-redundant knowledge brought by this clone-tailored approach compared to TCGA or transcriptomic panels, the targetable proteins identified in the clonal proteome dataset, and the potential of this approach for drug discovery and repurposing through drug interactions with antineoplastic agents and non-anticancer drugs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 91-142
Sarfaraz K. Niazi

Wen Li ◽  
Jinyang Zhang ◽  
Min Wang ◽  
Ru Dong ◽  
Xin Zhou ◽  

Abstract: Pyrimidine-fused derivatives that are the inextricable part of DNA and RNA play a key role in the normal life cycle of cells. Pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycles including pyrazolopyrimidines and imidazopyrimidines is a special class of pyrimidine-fused compounds contributing to an important portion in anti-cancer drug discovery, which have been discovered as core structure for promising anti-cancer agents used in clinic or clinical evaluations. Pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycles have become one privileged scaffold for anti-cancer drug discovery. This review consists of the recent progress of pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycles as anti-cancer agents and their synthetic strategies. In addition, this review also summarizes some key structure-activity relationships (SARs) of pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycle derivatives as anti-cancer agents.

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