metabolic pathways
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

5733
(FIVE YEARS 2907)

H-INDEX

129
(FIVE YEARS 41)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amadou Sidibé ◽  
Marie Thérèse Charles ◽  
Jean-François Lucier ◽  
Yanqun Xu ◽  
Carole Beaulieu

Preharvest application of hormetic doses of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) generates beneficial effects in plants. In this study, within 1 week, four UV-C treatments of 0.4 kJ/m2 were applied to 3-week-old lettuce seedlings. The leaves were inoculated with a virulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) 48 h after the last UV-C application. The extent of the disease was tracked over time and a transcriptomic analysis was performed on lettuce leaf samples. Samples of lettuce leaves, from both control and treated groups, were taken at two different times corresponding to T2, 48 h after the last UV-C treatment and T3, 24 h after inoculation (i.e., 72 h after the last UV-C treatment). A significant decrease in disease severity between the UV-C treated lettuce and the control was observed on days 4, 8, and 14 after pathogen inoculation. Data from the transcriptomic study revealed, that in response to the effect of UV-C alone and/or UV-C + Xcv, a total of 3828 genes were differentially regulated with fold change (|log2-FC|) > 1.5 and false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Among these, of the 2270 genes of known function 1556 were upregulated and 714 were downregulated. A total of 10 candidate genes were verified by qPCR and were generally consistent with the transcriptomic results. The differentially expressed genes observed in lettuce under the conditions of the present study were associated with 14 different biological processes in the plant. These genes are involved in a series of metabolic pathways associated with the ability of lettuce treated with hormetic doses of UV-C to resume normal growth and to defend themselves against potential stressors. The results indicate that the hormetic dose of UV-C applied preharvest on lettuce in this study, can be considered as an eustress that does not interfere with the ability of the treated plants to carry on a set of key physiological processes namely: homeostasis, growth and defense.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tadashi Maeda ◽  
Hiroaki Zai ◽  
Yuto Fukui ◽  
Yoshifumi Kato ◽  
Eri Kumade ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The bioactivities of commensal duodenal microbiota greatly influence the biofunction of hosts. We investigated the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in extra-gastroduodenal diseases by determining the impact of H. pylori infection on the duodenal microbiota. We sequenced 16 S rRNA genes in samples aspirated from the descending duodenum of 47 (male, 20; female, 27) individuals who were screened for gastric cancer. Samples were analysed using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and the LEFSe and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes methods were used to determine whether the duodenal microflora and microbial biofunctions were affected using H. pylori infection. Results Thirteen and 34 participants tested positive and negative for H. pylori, respectively. We identified 1,404 bacterial operational taxonomic units from 23 phyla and 253 genera. H. pylori infection changed the relative mean abundance of three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and TM7) and ten genera (Neisseria, Rothia, TM7-3, Leptotrichia, Lachnospiraceae, Megasphaera, F16, Moryella, Filifactor, and Paludibacter). Microbiota features were significantly influenced in H. pylori-positive participants by 12 taxa mostly classified as Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial functional annotation revealed that H. pylori significantly affected 12 microbial metabolic pathways. Conclusions H. pylori disrupted normal bacterial communities in the duodenum and changed the biofunctions of commensal microbiota primarily by upregulating specific metabolic pathways. Such upregulation may be involved in the onset of diseases associated with H. pylori infection.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenna Swetha ◽  
Anushree Narjala ◽  
Awadhesh Pandit ◽  
Varsha Tirumalai ◽  
P. V. Shivaprasad

Abstract Background Small non-coding (s)RNAs are involved in the negative regulation of gene expression, playing critical roles in genome integrity, development and metabolic pathways. Targeting of RNAs by ribonucleoprotein complexes of sRNAs bound to Argonaute (AGO) proteins results in cleaved RNAs having precise and predictable 5` ends. While tools to study sliced bits of RNAs to confirm the efficiency of sRNA-mediated regulation are available, they are sub-optimal. In this study, we provide an improvised version of a tool with better efficiency to accurately validate sRNA targets. Results Here, we improvised the CleaveLand tool to identify additional micro (mi)RNA targets that belong to the same family and also other targets within a specified free energy cut-off. These additional targets were otherwise excluded during the default run. We employed these tools to understand the sRNA targeting efficiency in wild and cultivated rice, sequenced degradome from two rice lines, O. nivara and O. sativa indica Pusa Basmati-1 and analyzed variations in sRNA targeting. Our results indicate the existence of multiple miRNA-mediated targeting differences between domesticated and wild species. For example, Os5NG4 was targeted only in wild rice that might be responsible for the poor secondary wall formation when compared to cultivated rice. We also identified differential mRNA targets of secondary sRNAs that were generated after miRNA-mediated cleavage of primary targets. Conclusions We identified many differentially targeted mRNAs between wild and domesticated rice lines. In addition to providing a step-wise guide to generate and analyze degradome datasets, we showed how domestication altered sRNA-mediated cascade silencing during the evolution of indica rice.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amir Akhgari ◽  
Bikash Baral ◽  
Arina Koroleva ◽  
Vilja Siitonen ◽  
David P Fewer ◽  
...  

Actinomycetes are important producers of pharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. However, wild type strains require laborious development prior to industrial usage. Here we present a generally applicable reporter-guided metabolic engineering tool based on random mutagenesis, selective pressure, and single-cell sorting. We developed fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) methodology capable of reproducibly identifying high-performing individual cells from a mutant population directly from liquid cultures. Genome-mining based drug discovery is a promising source of bioactive compounds, which is complicated by the observation that target metabolic pathways may be silent under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate our technology for drug discovery by activating a silent mutaxanthene metabolic pathway in Amycolatopsis. We apply the method for industrial strain development and increase mutaxanthene yields 9-fold to 99 mg l-1 in a second round of mutant selection. Actinomycetes are an important source of catabolic enzymes, where product yields determine industrial viability. We demonstrate 5-fold yield improvement with an industrial cholesterol oxidase ChoD producer Streptomyces lavendulae to 20.4 U g-1 in three rounds. Strain development is traditionally followed by production medium optimization, which is a time-consuming multi-parameter problem that may require hard to source ingredients. Ultra-high throughput screening allowed us to circumvent medium optimization and we identified high ChoD yield production strains directly from mutant libraries grown under preset culture conditions. In summary, the ability to screen tens of millions of mutants in a single cell format offers broad applicability for metabolic engineering of actinomycetes for activation of silent metabolic pathways and to increase yields of proteins and natural products.


Author(s):  
Rubia M. Martin ◽  
Michael S. Bereman ◽  
Kurt C. Marsden

AbstractExposure to cyanotoxins has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease. While the cyanotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has received much attention, cyanobacteria produce many cyanotoxic compounds, several of which have been detected in nature alongside BMAA, including 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG). Thus, the question of whether 2,4-DAB and AEG also cause neurotoxic effects in vivo is of great interest, as is the question of whether they interact to enhance toxicity. Here, we evaluate the toxic and neurotoxic effects of these cyanotoxins alone or in combination by measuring zebrafish larval viability and behavior after exposure. 2,4-DAB was the most potent cyanotoxin as it decreased larval viability by approximately 50% at 6 days post fertilization, while BMAA and AEG decreased viability by just 16% and 8%, respectively. Although we only observed minor neurotoxic effects on spontaneous locomotion, BMAA and AEG enhanced acoustic startle sensitivity, and they interacted in an additive manner to exert their effects. 2,4-DAB; however, only modulated startle kinematics, an indication of motor dysfunction. To investigate the mechanisms of 2,4-DAB’s effects, we analyzed the protein profile of larval zebrafish exposed to 500 µM 2,4-DAB at two time points and identified molecular signatures consistent with neurodegeneration, including disruption of metabolic pathways and downregulation of the ALS-associated genes SOD1 and UBQLN4. Together, our data demonstrate that BMAA and its isomers AEG and 2,4-DAB cause neurotoxic effects in vivo, with 2,4-DAB as the most potent of the three in the zebrafish model.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Chen ◽  
Yanpeng Wang ◽  
Zhijun Zhang ◽  
Xiaomin Liu ◽  
Chao Li ◽  
...  

Arginine plays an important role in the nitrogen (N) cycle because it has the highest ratio of N to carbon among amino acids. In recent years, there has been increased research interest in improving the N use of plants, reducing the use of N fertilizer, and enhancing the tolerance of plants to N deficiency. Here, the function of arginine in the growth of apple (Malus hupehensis) under N deficiency was explored. The application of 100 μmol L–1 arginine was effective for alleviating N-deficiency stress. Exogenous arginine promoted the absorption and use of N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) under low N stress. The net photosynthetic rate, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and chlorophyll content were higher in treated plants than in control plants. Exogenous arginine affected the content of many metabolites, and the content of many amino acids with important functions was significantly increased, such as glutamate and ornithine, which play an important role in the urea cycle. Half of the metabolites were annotated to specialized metabolic pathways, including the synthesis of phenolic substances, flavonoids, and other substances with antioxidant activity. Our results indicate that arginine promotes the plant photosynthetic capacity and alters amino acid metabolism and some antioxidants including phenolic substances and flavonoids to improve the tolerance of apple to N deficiency, possibly through the improvement of arginine content, and the absorption of mineral.


Author(s):  
Jiefei Wang ◽  
W. Seth Childers

The multifaceted and heterogeneous nature of depression presents challenges in pinpointing treatments. Among these contributions are the interconnections between the gut microbiome and neurological function termed the gut-brain axis. A diverse range of microbiome-produced metabolites interact with host signaling and metabolic pathways through this gut-brain axis relationship. Therefore, biosensor detection of gut metabolites offers the potential to quantify the microbiome’s contributions to depression. Herein we review synthetic biology strategies to detect signals that indicate gut-brain axis dysregulation that may contribute to depression. We also highlight future challenges in developing living diagnostics of microbiome conditions influencing depression.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (6) ◽  
pp. 149-162
Author(s):  
Rara Inggarsih ◽  
Ella Amalia ◽  
Septi Purnamasari

The cell membrane plays an important role in cell traffic because it functions to secrete various molecules. The selective transport system allows the movement of molecules into or out of the cell compartment. By controlling the movement of substances from one compartment to another, membranes exert a strong influence on metabolic pathways. Cell membranes are composed of proteins and lipids with a very important function in maintaining the rhythm of circulation and cell transport. In addition, the cell membrane also plays a role in maintaining the integrity and relationship, and communication of cells.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document