privileged scaffold
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Wen Li ◽  
Jinyang Zhang ◽  
Min Wang ◽  
Ru Dong ◽  
Xin Zhou ◽  

Abstract: Pyrimidine-fused derivatives that are the inextricable part of DNA and RNA play a key role in the normal life cycle of cells. Pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycles including pyrazolopyrimidines and imidazopyrimidines is a special class of pyrimidine-fused compounds contributing to an important portion in anti-cancer drug discovery, which have been discovered as core structure for promising anti-cancer agents used in clinic or clinical evaluations. Pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycles have become one privileged scaffold for anti-cancer drug discovery. This review consists of the recent progress of pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycles as anti-cancer agents and their synthetic strategies. In addition, this review also summarizes some key structure-activity relationships (SARs) of pyrimidine-fused dinitrogenous penta-heterocycle derivatives as anti-cancer agents.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 330
Mohammed I. El-Gamal ◽  
Seyed-Omar Zaraei ◽  
Moustafa M. Madkour ◽  
Hanan S. Anbar

Pyrazole has been recognized as a pharmacologically important privileged scaffold whose derivatives produce almost all types of pharmacological activities and have attracted much attention in the last decades. Of the various pyrazole derivatives reported as potential therapeutic agents, this article focuses on pyrazole-based kinase inhibitors. Pyrazole-possessing kinase inhibitors play a crucial role in various disease areas, especially in many cancer types such as lymphoma, breast cancer, melanoma, cervical cancer, and others in addition to inflammation and neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we reviewed the structural and biological characteristics of the pyrazole derivatives recently reported as kinase inhibitors and classified them according to their target kinases in a chronological order. We reviewed the reports including pyrazole derivatives as kinase inhibitors published during the past decade (2011–2020).

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1307
Elena Cichero ◽  
Alessio Calautti ◽  
Valeria Francesconi ◽  
Michele Tonelli ◽  
Silvia Schenone ◽  

Targeting the fusion (F) protein has been recognized as a fruitful strategy for the development of anti-RSV agents. Despite the considerable efforts so far put into the development of RSV F protein inhibitors, the discovery of adequate therapeutics for the treatment of RSV infections is still awaiting a positive breakthrough. Several benzimidazole-containing derivatives have been discovered and evaluated in clinical trials, with only some of them being endowed with a promising pharmacokinetic profile. In this context, we applied a computational study based on a careful analysis of a number of X-ray crystallographic data of the RSV F protein, in the presence of different clinical candidates. A deepen comparison of the related electrostatic features and H-bonding motifs allowed us to pave the way for the following molecular dynamic simulation of JNJ-53718678 and then to perform docking studies of the in-house library of potent benzimidazole-containing anti-RSV agents. The results revealed not only the deep flexibility of the biological target but also the most relevant and recurring key contacts supporting the benzimidazole F protein inhibitor ability. Among them, several hydrophobic interactions and π-π stacking involving F140 and F488 proved to be mandatory, as well as H-bonding to D486. Specific requirements turning in RSV F protein binding ability were also explored thanks to structure-based pharmacophore analysis. Along with this, in silico prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) properties, and also of possible off-target events was performed. The results highlighted once more that the benzimidazole ring represents a privileged scaffold whose properties deserve to be further investigated for the rational design of novel and orally bioavailable anti-RSV agents.

Xu Ozan Han ◽  
Yun Long Yu ◽  
Yang Sheng Hu ◽  
Xin Hua Liu

: 1,3,4-thiadiazole is a five-membered aromatic heterocycle containing two nitrogen atoms and one sulfur atom. As a privileged scaffold, it has its unique chemical properties and biological characteristics. In the design of drugs, they are widely and flexibly applied by medicinal chemists, and many candidates with therapeutic prospects have been developed. In this review, we focus on 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives and their various biological activities reported in the past five years (from 2015 to early 2020), such as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tuberculosis, anti-inflammatory, antivirus, anti-leishmania and other functions. It is believed that this review can provide some new ideas for seeking rational design to develop 1,3,4-thiadiazole based medicinal agents with better activity and lower toxicity.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6755
Maria J. Matos ◽  
Eugenio Uriarte ◽  
Lourdes Santana

3-Phenylcoumarins are a family of heterocyclic molecules that are widely used in both organic and medicinal chemistry. In this overview, research on this scaffold, since 2010, is included and discussed, focusing on aspects related to its natural origin, synthetic procedures and pharmacological applications. This review paper is based on the most relevant literature related to the role of 3-phenylcoumarins in the design of new drug candidates. The references presented in this review have been collected from multiple electronic databases, including SciFinder, Pubmed and Mendeley.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1515
Joanna Bojarska ◽  
Adam Mieczkowski ◽  
Zyta Ziora ◽  
Mariusz Skwarczynski ◽  
Istvan Toth ◽  

Cyclic dipeptides, also know as diketopiperazines (DKP), the simplest cyclic forms of peptides widespread in nature, are unsurpassed in their structural and bio-functional diversity. DKPs, especially those containing proline, due to their unique features such as, inter alia, extra-rigid conformation, high resistance to enzyme degradation, increased cell permeability, and expandable ability to bind a diverse of targets with better affinity, have emerged in the last years as biologically pre-validated platforms for the drug discovery. Recent advances have revealed their enormous potential in the development of next-generation theranostics, smart delivery systems, and biomaterials. Here, we present an updated review on the biological and structural profile of these appealing biomolecules, with a particular emphasis on those with anticancer properties, since cancers are the main cause of death all over the world. Additionally, we provide a consideration on supramolecular structuring and synthons, based on the proline-based DKP privileged scaffold, for inspiration in the design of compound libraries in search of ideal ligands, innovative self-assembled nanomaterials, and bio-functional architectures.

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