Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.
Eclipta prostrata has been long used by humans as traditional medicine and hair fertilizer. This study aims to explain the relationship between utilization and bioactivity of E. prostrata. The method used is a literature review of articles published online on Google Scholar using the keywords E. prostrata, uses E. prostrata, and bioactivity of E. prostrata. Ethnobotanically, E. prostrata is used to treat liver disorders, liver tonic, respiratory disorders (asthma, cough), hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, and gastritis. In the field of beauty E. prostrata is used to nourish hair and treat baldness. The E. prostrata has bioactivity to treat neurodegeneration, asthma, anti-cancer, overcoming baldness, anti-diabetes mellitus, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, anti-osteoporosis, and anti-hypercholesterolemia. The bioactivity of E. prostrata is related to the content of its secondary metabolite compounds. Echinocystic acid and ecclalbasaponin II from E. prostrata are associated with anti-cancer activity.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive and tumour-specific therapy. Photosensitizers (PSs) (essential ingredients in PDT) aggregate easily owing to their lipophilic properties. The aim of this study was to synthesise a PS (methyl pheophorbide a, MPa) and design a biocompatible lipid-based nanocarrier to improve its bioavailability and pharmacological effects. MPa-loaded nano-transfersomes were fabricated by sonication. The characteristics of synthesised PS and nano-transfersomes were assessed. The effects of PDT were evaluated by 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran assay and by measuring photo-cytotoxicity against HeLa and A549 cell lines. The mean particle size and zeta potential for nano-transfersomes ranged from 95.84 to 267.53 nm and −19.53 to −45.08 mV, respectively. Nano-transfersomes exhibited sustained drug release for 48 h in a physiological environment (as against burst release in an acidic environment), which enables its use as a pH-responsive drug release system in PDT with enhanced photodynamic activity and reduced side effects. The formulations showed light cytotoxicity, but no dark toxicity, which meant that light irradiation resulted in anti-cancer effects. Additionally, formulations with the smallest size exhibited photodynamic activity to a larger extent than those with the highest loading capacity or free MPa. These results suggest that our MPa-loaded nano-transfersome system is a promising anti-cancer strategy for PDT.