anticancer drugs
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2022 ◽  
Eun-Ae Kim ◽  
Ji Hoon Jang ◽  
Eon-Gi Sung ◽  
In-Hwan Song ◽  
Joo-Young Kim ◽  

ACS Omega ◽  
2022 ◽  
Lucia Ya. Zakharova ◽  
Alexandra D. Voloshina ◽  
Marina R. Ibatullina ◽  
Elena P. Zhiltsova ◽  
Svetlana S. Lukashenko ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Nawale Hajjaji ◽  
Soulaimane Aboulouard ◽  
Tristan Cardon ◽  
Delphine Bertin ◽  
Yves-Marie Robin ◽  

Integrating tumor heterogeneity in the drug discovery process is a key challenge to tackle breast cancer resistance. Identifying protein targets for functionally distinct tumor clones is particularly important to tailor therapy to the heterogeneous tumor subpopulations and achieve clonal theranostics. For this purpose, we performed an unsupervised, label-free, spatially resolved shotgun proteomics guided by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) on 124 selected tumor clonal areas from early luminal breast cancers, tumor stroma, and breast cancer metastases. 2868 proteins were identified. The main protein classes found in the clonal proteome dataset were enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, membrane-traffic, translational or scaffold proteins, or transporters. As a comparison, gene-specific transcriptional regulators, chromatin related proteins or transmembrane signal receptor were more abundant in the TCGA dataset. Moreover, 26 mutated proteins have been identified. Similarly, expanding the search to alternative proteins databases retrieved 126 alternative proteins in the clonal proteome dataset. Most of these alternative proteins were coded mainly from non-coding RNA. To fully understand the molecular information brought by our approach and its relevance to drug target discovery, the clonal proteomic dataset was further compared to the TCGA breast cancer database and two transcriptomic panels, BC360 (nanoString®) and CDx (Foundation One®). We retrieved 139 pathways in the clonal proteome dataset. Only 55% of these pathways were also present in the TCGA dataset, 68% in BC360 and 50% in CDx. Seven of these pathways have been suggested as candidate for drug targeting, 22 have been associated with breast cancer in experimental or clinical reports, the remaining 19 pathways have been understudied in breast cancer. Among the anticancer drugs, 35 drugs matched uniquely with the clonal proteome dataset, with only 7 of them already approved in breast cancer. The number of target and drug interactions with non-anticancer drugs (such as agents targeting the cardiovascular system, metabolism, the musculoskeletal or the nervous systems) was higher in the clonal proteome dataset (540 interactions) compared to TCGA (83 interactions), BC360 (419 interactions), or CDx (172 interactions). Many of the protein targets identified and drugs screened were clinically relevant to breast cancer and are in clinical trials. Thus, we described the non-redundant knowledge brought by this clone-tailored approach compared to TCGA or transcriptomic panels, the targetable proteins identified in the clonal proteome dataset, and the potential of this approach for drug discovery and repurposing through drug interactions with antineoplastic agents and non-anticancer drugs.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Javier Pérez Quiñones ◽  
Cornelia Roschger ◽  
Aitziber Iturmendi ◽  
Helena Henke ◽  
Andreas Zierer ◽  

The design and study of efficient polymer-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of anticancer drugs is one of the pillars of nanomedicine. The fight against metastatic and invasive cancers demands therapeutic candidates with increased and selective toxicity towards malignant cells, long-term activity and reduced side effects. In this sense, polyphosphazene nanocarriers were synthesized for the sustained release of the anticancer drugs camptothecin (CPT) and epirubicin (EPI). Linear poly(dichloro)phosphazene was modified with lipophilic tocopherol or testosterone glycinate, with antioxidant and antitumor activity, and with hydrophilic Jeffamine M1000 to obtain different polyphosphazene nanocarriers. It allowed us to encapsulate the lipophilic CPT and the more hydrophilic EPI. The encapsulation process was carried out via solvent exchange/precipitation, attaining a 9.2–13.6 wt% of CPT and 0.3–2.4 wt% of EPI. CPT-loaded polyphosphazenes formed 140–200 nm aggregates in simulated body physiological conditions (PBS, pH 7.4), resulting in an 80–100-fold increase of CPT solubility. EPI-loaded polyphosphazenes formed 250 nm aggregates in an aqueous medium. CPT and EPI release (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 °C) was monitored for 202 h, being almost linear during the first 8 h. The slow release of testosterone and tocopherol was also sustained for 150 hours in PBS (pH 7.4 and 6.0) at 37 °C. The co-delivery of testosterone or tocopherol and the anticancer drugs from the nanocarriers was expected. Cells of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 demonstrated good uptake of anticancer-drug-loaded nanocarriers after 6 hours. Similarly, MCF-7 spheroids showed good uptake of the anticancer-drug-loaded aggregates after 72 hours. Almost all anticancer-drug-loaded polyphosphazenes exhibited similar or superior toxicity against MCF-7 cells and spheroids when compared to raw anticancer drugs. Additionally, cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase was increased in response to the drug-loaded nanocarriers. Almost no toxicity of anticancer-drug-loaded aggregates against primary human lung fibroblasts was observed. Furthermore, the aggregates displayed no hemolytic activity, which is in contrast to the parent anticancer drugs. Consequently, synthesized polyphosphazene-based nanocarriers might be potential nanomedicines for chemotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 689
Saya Nagasawa ◽  
Kazuhiro Ikeda ◽  
Daisuke Shintani ◽  
Chiujung Yang ◽  
Satoru Takeda ◽  

Gene structure alterations, such as chromosomal rearrangements that develop fusion genes, often contribute to tumorigenesis. It has been shown that the fusion genes identified in public RNA-sequencing datasets are mainly derived from intrachromosomal rearrangements. In this study, we explored fusion transcripts in clinical ovarian cancer specimens based on our RNA-sequencing data. We successfully identified an in-frame fusion transcript SPON1-TRIM29 in chromosome 11 from a recurrent tumor specimen of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), which was not detected in the corresponding primary carcinoma, and validated the expression of the identical fusion transcript in another tumor from a distinct HGSC patient. Ovarian cancer A2780 cells stably expressing SPON1-TRIM29 exhibited an increase in cell growth, whereas a decrease in apoptosis was observed, even in the presence of anticancer drugs. The siRNA-mediated silencing of SPON1-TRIM29 fusion transcript substantially impaired the enhanced growth of A2780 cells expressing the chimeric gene treated with anticancer drugs. Moreover, a subcutaneous xenograft model using athymic mice indicated that SPON1-TRIM29-expressing A2780 cells rapidly generated tumors in vivo compared to control cells, whose growth was significantly repressed by the fusion-specific siRNA administration. Overall, the SPON1-TRIM29 fusion gene could be involved in carcinogenesis and chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer, and offers potential use as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for the disease with the fusion transcript.

Neda Sahi ◽  
Akbar Mostajeran ◽  
Mustafa Ghanadian

Catharanthus roseus seedling was treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.16, 15, and 30 mmol) and forms (K<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and KNO<sub>3</sub>) of potassium (K<sup>+</sup>) via Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Ascorbic acid (AsA) was sprayed twice (plant days 68 and 78) with different concentrations (750 and 1 500 mg/L) on the leaves. Vinblastine, vincristine, tryptophan contents, D4H and DAT genes expression, peroxidase activity, and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> content of leaves were measured. Potassium in KNO<sub>3</sub> form increased vinblastine (60%) and vincristine (50%), compared to 30% and 20% using K<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. Vinblastine and vincristine inhibit microtubule assembly and ultimately metaphase-arrested caused by the polymerisation. The genes expression was higher 3 times in KNO<sub>3</sub> and 2.5 times in K<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> in excess of K<sup>+</sup>. Foliar application of 750 mg/L AsA led to an increase in vinblastine (20%) and vincristine (16%). Both concentrations of AsA had the same additional effect on the expression of D4H and DAT about 30% and 60%, respectively, compared to the control plant. Tryptophan decreased 2.5 times in excess of K<sup>+</sup> and 35% due to the exterior of AsA. H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> decreased while peroxidase activity increased along with AsA treatment. A positive interaction existed between the K<sup>+</sup> and AsA on the amount of vinblastine, vincristine, tryptophan, and gene expression.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
Shuang Ren ◽  
Fei Pan ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Guo-Wu Rao

Abstract: In recent years, cyclobutyl has become ever more influential in the field of drug design. Its unique four-membered ring structure is not only a useful intermediate for the synthesis of biomedical candidate materials, but also an indispensable framework for drug design and application. According to the therapeutic field, cyclobutyl drugs are roughly divided into tumor and cancer drugs, nervous system drugs, analgesics, antiviral drugs, and gastrointestinal drugs. Among them, platinum-based anticancer drugs containing cyclobutyl fragments have achieved remarkable success in the treatment of cancer, bringing new hope for the development of more cyclobutyl drugs. This article provides details of the research progress of the structure types, structure-activity relationships, targets, and mechanisms of cyclobutyl drugs that have been on the market or are in the clinical stage, and provides ideas for the discovery and synthesis of novel cyclobutyl-containing drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 ◽  
pp. 24-40
Emilio Mateev ◽  
Maya Georgieva ◽  
Alexander Zlatkov

With the significant increase of patients suffering from different types of cancer, it is evident that prompt measures in the development of novel and effective agents need to be taken. Pyrrole moiety has been found in various active compounds with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, lipid-lowering and anticancer properties. Recent advances in the exploration of highly active and selective cytotoxic structures containing pyrrole motifs have shown promising data for future investigations. Accordingly, this review presents an overview of recent developments in the pyrrole derivatives as anticancer agents, with a main focus towards the key moieties required for the anti-tumor activities. Pyrrole molecules comprising prominent targeting capacities against microtubule polymerization, tyrosine kinases, cytochrome p450 family 1, histone deacetylase and bcl-2 proteins were reported. In addition, several mechanisms of action, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibiting kinases, angiogenesis, disruption of cell migration, modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness and others were analyzed. Furthermore, in most of the discussed cases we provided synthesis schemes of the mentioned molecules. Overall, the utilization of pyrrole scaffold for the design and synthesis of novel anticancer drugs could be a promising approach for future investigations.  

2022 ◽  
Kashif Haider ◽  
Mohammad Shahar Yar

Benzimidazole is one of the privileged nitrogen-containing scaffolds known for its versatile diversified role in insecticides, pesticides, dyes, pigments and pharmaceuticals. Due to its electron-rich environment, structural features and binding potency of various therapeutic targets, benzimidazole derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity that majorly includes antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesics, anti-diabetic and anticancer agents. Several benzimidazole scaffolds bearing drugs are clinically approved; they are used for various indications. For example, Bilastine, Lerisetron, Maribavir and Nocodazole are the most widely used benzimidazole-based marketed drugs available as an antihistamine, antiviral and antimitotic agent, respectively. Another example is the recently approved anticancer drug Binimetinib and Selumetinib, which are indicated for BRAF mutated melanoma and plexiform neurofibromas. Not only this, many benzimidazole-based anticancer drugs are in late phases of clinical development. Due to the vast therapeutic potential of benzimidazole scaffold in cancer research, medicinal chemists have gained a lot of attraction to explore it more and develop novel, highly effective and target-specific benzimidazole-based potential anticancer drugs.

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