The relation learning between two entities is an essential task in knowledge graph (KG) completion that has received much attention recently. Previous work almost exclusively focused on relations widely seen in the original KGs, which means that enough training data are available for modeling. However, long-tail relations that only show in a few triples are actually much more common in practical KGs. Without sufficiently large training data, the performance of existing models on predicting long-tail relations drops impressively. This work aims to predict the relation under a challenging setting where only one instance is available for training. We propose a path-based one-shot relation prediction framework, which can extract neighborhood information of an entity based on the relation query attention mechanism to learn transferable knowledge among the same relation. Simultaneously, to reduce the impact of long-tail entities on relation prediction, we selectively fuse path information between entity pairs as auxiliary information of relation features. Experiments in three one-shot relation learning datasets show that our proposed framework substantially outperforms existing models on one-shot link prediction and relation prediction.
Explicit and implicit knowledge about users and items have been used to describe complex and heterogeneous side information for recommender systems (RSs). Many existing methods use knowledge graph embedding (KGE) to learn the representation of a user-item knowledge graph (KG) in low-dimensional space. In this article, we propose a lightweight end-to-end joint learning framework for fusing the tasks of KGE and RSs at the model level. Our method proposes a lightweight KG embedding method by using bidirectional bijection relation-type modeling to enable scalability for large graphs while using self-adaptive negative sampling to optimize negative sample generating. Our method further generates the integrated views for users and items based on relation-types to explicitly model users’ preferences and items’ features, respectively. Finally, we add virtual “recommendation” relations between the integrated views of users and items to model the preferences of users on items, seamlessly integrating RS with user-item KG over a unified graph. Experimental results on multiple datasets and benchmarks show that our method can achieve a better accuracy of recommendation compared with existing state-of-the-art methods. Complexity and runtime analysis suggests that our method can gain a lower time and space complexity than most of existing methods and improve scalability.
Recommender algorithms combining knowledge graph and graph convolutional network are becoming more and more popular recently. Specifically, attributes describing the items to be recommended are often used as additional information. These attributes along with items are highly interconnected, intrinsically forming a Knowledge Graph (KG). These algorithms use KGs as an auxiliary data source to alleviate the negative impact of data sparsity. However, these graph convolutional network based algorithms do not distinguish the importance of different neighbors of entities in the KG, and according to Pareto’s principle, the important neighbors only account for a small proportion. These traditional algorithms can not fully mine the useful information in the KG.
To fully release the power of KGs for building recommender systems, we propose in this article KRAN, a Knowledge Refining Attention Network, which can subtly capture the characteristics of the KG and thus boost recommendation performance. We first introduce a traditional attention mechanism into the KG processing, making the knowledge extraction more targeted, and then propose a refining mechanism to improve the traditional attention mechanism to extract the knowledge in the KG more effectively. More precisely, KRAN is designed to use our proposed knowledge-refining attention mechanism to aggregate and obtain the representations of the entities (both attributes and items) in the KG. Our knowledge-refining attention mechanism first measures the relevance between an entity and it’s neighbors in the KG by attention coefficients, and then further refines the attention coefficients using a “richer-get-richer” principle, in order to focus on highly relevant neighbors while eliminating less relevant neighbors for noise reduction. In addition, for the item cold start problem, we propose KRAN-CD, a variant of KRAN, which further incorporates pre-trained KG embeddings to handle cold start items. Experiments show that KRAN and KRAN-CD consistently outperform state-of-the-art baselines across different settings.
Accurately recommending the next point of interest (POI) has become a fundamental problem with the rapid growth of location-based social networks. However, sparse, imbalanced check-in data and diverse user check-in patterns pose severe challenges for POI recommendation tasks. Knowledge-aware models are known to be primary in leveraging these problems. However, as most knowledge graphs are constructed statically, sequential information is yet integrated. In this work, we propose a meta-learned sequential-knowledge-aware recommender (Meta-SKR), which utilizes sequential, spatio-temporal, and social knowledge to recommend the next POI for a location-based social network user. The framework mainly contains four modules. First, in the graph construction module, a novel type of knowledge graph—the sequential knowledge graph, which is sensitive to the check-in order of POIs—is built to model users’ check-in patterns. To deal with the problem of data sparsity, a meta-learning module based on latent embedding optimization is then introduced to generate user-conditioned parameters of the subsequent sequential-knowledge-aware embedding module, where representation vectors of entities (nodes) and relations (edges) are learned. In this embedding module, gated recurrent units are adapted to distill intra- and inter-sequential knowledge graph information. We also design a novel knowledge-aware attention mechanism to capture information surrounding a given node. Finally, POI recommendation is provided by inferring potential links of knowledge graphs in the prediction module. Evaluations on three real-world check-in datasets show that Meta-SKR can achieve high recommendation accuracy even with sparse data.
recommendation is a key task in improving location-related customer experiences and business operations, but yet remains challenging due to the substantial diversity of human activities and the sparsity of the check-in records available. To address these challenges, we proposed to explore the category hierarchy knowledge graph of POIs via an attention mechanism to learn the robust representations of POIs even when there is insufficient data. We also proposed a spatial-temporal decay LSTM and a Discrete Fourier Series-based periodic attention to better facilitate the capturing of the personalized behavior pattern. Extensive experiments on two commonly adopted real-world
location-based social networks (LBSNs)
datasets proved that the inclusion of the aforementioned modules helps to boost the performance of next and next new POI recommendation tasks significantly. Specifically, our model in general outperforms other state-of-the-art methods by a large margin.
Science across all disciplines has become increasingly data-driven, leading to additional needs with respect to software for collecting, processing and analysing data. Thus, transparency about software used as part of the scientific process is crucial to understand provenance of individual research data and insights, is a prerequisite for reproducibility and can enable macro-analysis of the evolution of scientific methods over time. However, missing rigor in software citation practices renders the automated detection and disambiguation of software mentions a challenging problem. In this work, we provide a large-scale analysis of software usage and citation practices facilitated through an unprecedented knowledge graph of software mentions and affiliated metadata generated through supervised information extraction models trained on a unique gold standard corpus and applied to more than 3 million scientific articles. Our information extraction approach distinguishes different types of software and mentions, disambiguates mentions and outperforms the state-of-the-art significantly, leading to the most comprehensive corpus of 11.8 M software mentions that are described through a knowledge graph consisting of more than 300 M triples. Our analysis provides insights into the evolution of software usage and citation patterns across various fields, ranks of journals, and impact of publications. Whereas, to the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive analysis of software use and citation at the time, all data and models are shared publicly to facilitate further research into scientific use and citation of software.