Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
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Waqas Ullah ◽  
Sajjad Gul ◽  
Sameer Saleem ◽  
Mubbasher Ameer Syed ◽  
Muhammad Zia Khan ◽  

Abstract   Combined mitral valve replacement (MVR) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures have been the norm for patients with concomitant mitral valve disease (MVD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) with no large-scale data on their safety and efficacy. Methods The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2002-2018) was queried to identify patients undergoing MVR and CABG. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and its components were compared using a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Results A crude population of 6,145,694 (CABG-only 3,971,045, MVR-only 1,933,459, MVR+CABG 241,190), while a subset of matched cohort 724,237 (CABG-only 241,436, MVR-only 241,611 vs. MVR+CABG 241,190) was included in the PSM analysis. The combined MVR+CABG procedure had significantly higher adjusted odds of MACE (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14 and OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.93-1.99) and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.27-1.31 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 2.05-2.14) compared with CABG and MVR-alone, respectively. Similarly, the risk of post-procedure bleeding, major bleeding, acute kidney injury, cardiogenic shock, sepsis, need for intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), mean length of stay (LOS) and total charges per hospitalization were significantly higher for patients undergoing the combined procedure. These findings remained consistent on yearly trend analysis favoring the isolated CABG and MVR groups. Conclusion Combined procedure (MVR+CABG) in patients with MVD and CAD appears to be associated with worse in-hospital outcomes, increased mortality and higher resource utilization compared with isolated CABG and MVR procedures. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the relative safety of these procedures in the full spectrum of baseline valvular and angiographic characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
Vali Imantalab ◽  
Abbas Sedighinejad ◽  
Ali Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi ◽  
Gelareh Biazar ◽  
Gholamreza Kanani ◽  

Background: Hyperglycemia during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) strongly predicts intra- and post-operative adverse consequences. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of glycemic management during CABG in an academic center regarding peripheral blood and coronary sinus values. Methods: This prospective descriptive study encompassed 55 eligible patients undergoing on-pump CABG surgery in 2020. Peripheral blood glucose (BG) was measured four times, before anesthesia induction (T0), before cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPB) (T1), during CPB (T2), at the end of CPB (T3), and at the end of surgery (T4). The surgeon also took a sample of the coronary sinus BG. Results: The BG variations from T0 to T4 were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The higher values detected in the ASA class III compared to ASA classes II were statistically significant at T1 (P = 0.01) and T2 (P = 0.025): patients with the higher BMI showed the higher levels of BG. In this regard, the differences were significant at T0 (P = 0.0001), T2 (P = 0.004), and T3 (P = 0.015). Regarding coronary sinus, the mean BG was 222.18 ± 75.74 mg/dL. It was also observed that the ASA class III (P = 0.001), longer duration of CPB (P = 0.021), higher IV fluid volume administrated during surgery (P = 0.023), higher BMI (P = 0.0001), and less urine volume at the end of surgery (P = 0.049) were significantly associated with the higher BG of the coronary sinus. Conclusions: The existing glycemic management protocols on the CABG patients were acceptable in our hospital. However, the BG level of the coronary sinus was higher than the peripheral one.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Andreas Seraphim ◽  
Kristopher D. Knott ◽  
Joao B. Augusto ◽  
Katia Menacho ◽  
Sara Tyebally ◽  

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery effectively relieves symptoms and improves outcomes. However, patients undergoing CABG surgery typically have advanced coronary atherosclerotic disease and remain at high risk for symptom recurrence and adverse events. Functional non-invasive testing for ischaemia is commonly used as a gatekeeper for invasive coronary and graft angiography, and for guiding subsequent revascularisation decisions. However, performing and interpreting non-invasive ischaemia testing in patients post CABG is challenging, irrespective of the imaging modality used. Multiple factors including advanced multi-vessel native vessel disease, variability in coronary hemodynamics post-surgery, differences in graft lengths and vasomotor properties, and complex myocardial scar morphology are only some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that complicate ischaemia evaluation in this patient population. Systematic assessment of the impact of these challenges in relation to each imaging modality may help optimize diagnostic test selection by incorporating clinical information and individual patient characteristics. At the same time, recent technological advances in cardiac imaging including improvements in image quality, wider availability of quantitative techniques for measuring myocardial blood flow and the introduction of artificial intelligence-based approaches for image analysis offer the opportunity to re-evaluate the value of ischaemia testing, providing new insights into the pathophysiological processes that determine outcomes in this patient population.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Azadeh Rezaei ◽  
Abdolali Shariati ◽  
Shahram Molavynejad ◽  
Saeed Ghanbari Chah Anjiri

Background: One of the effective nursing measures for enhancing the quality of life (QOL) and adaptation of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is the use of Roy’s adaptation model (RAM). Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of a training program based on Roy’s adaptation model on the adaptation of patients undergoing CABG. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of Imam Khomeini Hospital and Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran, in 2020. Patients were selected based on inclusion criteria and randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A four-session training program based on RAM was held for the intervention group. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 22. Results: The mean scores of physiological, self-concept, role function, and independence and interdependence dimensions in the experimental group before the intervention were 48.76 (6.36), 23.76 (4.10), 19.60 (2.93), and 25.60 (3.54), respectively. After the intervention, the mean scores in the mentioned dimensions were 101.26 (5.23), 50.80 (3.82), 39.10 (4.15), and 25.47 (3.99), respectively, indicating an upward trend (P < 0.05). Also, the mean score of total adaptation before the intervention was 117.73 (12.00), which rose to 216.63 (7.88) after the intervention (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that RAM plays an important role in the adaptation of patients undergoing CABG surgery. Thus, this model can provide a suitable framework for examining and providing care for patients undergoing CABG in ICUs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (18) ◽  
Noraini Hashim ◽  
Norhaini Majid ◽  
Norizan Masri ◽  
Suryanto Suryanto

Pre-operative evaluation and preparation of the patient for cardiac surgery affect post-operative outcomes and progress. A standardized pre-operative education will ensure that adequate and correct information is delivered to the patients. The research aims to determine the effectiveness of structured deep breathing exercises education on oxygenation in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The study used a quasi-experimental design. A total of 81 patients were recruited for this study. The SpO2 and PaO2 levels were measured using capillary saturation and Arterial Blood Gases (ABG). The results showed significant differences in SpO2 scores between control and intervention groups post-intervention. Keywords: Pre-operative education; Cardiac surgery; deep breathing exercises eISSN: 2398-4287© 2021. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians/Africans/Arabians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. DOI:

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