artery bypass graft
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Waqas Ullah ◽  
Sajjad Gul ◽  
Sameer Saleem ◽  
Mubbasher Ameer Syed ◽  
Muhammad Zia Khan ◽  

Abstract   Combined mitral valve replacement (MVR) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures have been the norm for patients with concomitant mitral valve disease (MVD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) with no large-scale data on their safety and efficacy. Methods The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2002-2018) was queried to identify patients undergoing MVR and CABG. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and its components were compared using a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Results A crude population of 6,145,694 (CABG-only 3,971,045, MVR-only 1,933,459, MVR+CABG 241,190), while a subset of matched cohort 724,237 (CABG-only 241,436, MVR-only 241,611 vs. MVR+CABG 241,190) was included in the PSM analysis. The combined MVR+CABG procedure had significantly higher adjusted odds of MACE (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14 and OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.93-1.99) and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.27-1.31 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 2.05-2.14) compared with CABG and MVR-alone, respectively. Similarly, the risk of post-procedure bleeding, major bleeding, acute kidney injury, cardiogenic shock, sepsis, need for intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), mean length of stay (LOS) and total charges per hospitalization were significantly higher for patients undergoing the combined procedure. These findings remained consistent on yearly trend analysis favoring the isolated CABG and MVR groups. Conclusion Combined procedure (MVR+CABG) in patients with MVD and CAD appears to be associated with worse in-hospital outcomes, increased mortality and higher resource utilization compared with isolated CABG and MVR procedures. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the relative safety of these procedures in the full spectrum of baseline valvular and angiographic characteristics.

Medicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Abdallah Fayssoil ◽  
Nicolas Mansencal ◽  
Lee S. Nguyen ◽  
David Orlikowski ◽  
Hélène Prigent ◽  

In cardiac surgery, patients are at risk of phrenic nerve injury, which leads to diaphragm dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm dysfunction (DD) is relatively frequent in cardiac surgery and particularly affects patients after coronary artery bypass graft. The onset of DD affects patients’ prognosis in term of weaning from mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. The authors present a narrative review about diaphragm physiology, techniques used to assess diaphragm function, and the clinical application of diaphragm ultrasound in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
Vali Imantalab ◽  
Abbas Sedighinejad ◽  
Ali Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi ◽  
Gelareh Biazar ◽  
Gholamreza Kanani ◽  

Background: Hyperglycemia during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) strongly predicts intra- and post-operative adverse consequences. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of glycemic management during CABG in an academic center regarding peripheral blood and coronary sinus values. Methods: This prospective descriptive study encompassed 55 eligible patients undergoing on-pump CABG surgery in 2020. Peripheral blood glucose (BG) was measured four times, before anesthesia induction (T0), before cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPB) (T1), during CPB (T2), at the end of CPB (T3), and at the end of surgery (T4). The surgeon also took a sample of the coronary sinus BG. Results: The BG variations from T0 to T4 were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The higher values detected in the ASA class III compared to ASA classes II were statistically significant at T1 (P = 0.01) and T2 (P = 0.025): patients with the higher BMI showed the higher levels of BG. In this regard, the differences were significant at T0 (P = 0.0001), T2 (P = 0.004), and T3 (P = 0.015). Regarding coronary sinus, the mean BG was 222.18 ± 75.74 mg/dL. It was also observed that the ASA class III (P = 0.001), longer duration of CPB (P = 0.021), higher IV fluid volume administrated during surgery (P = 0.023), higher BMI (P = 0.0001), and less urine volume at the end of surgery (P = 0.049) were significantly associated with the higher BG of the coronary sinus. Conclusions: The existing glycemic management protocols on the CABG patients were acceptable in our hospital. However, the BG level of the coronary sinus was higher than the peripheral one.

2021 ◽  
pp. 201010582110646
Tayebeh Eghbali ◽  
Batool Tirgari ◽  
Zahra Dehghani ◽  
Mansooreh A Forouzi

Background Controlling risk factors and lifestyle modification in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients plays an important role and leads to the empowerment of these patients to take care of themselves. One way to empower these patients is to improve their self-efficacy and hope. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the planned discharge on cardiac self-efficacy and hope of CABG patients. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, the sample consisted of 60 people (30 in the intervention group and 30 in the control group). Data were collected using the Miller Hope Questionnaire and Sullivan Cardiac Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using central indices of mean and standard deviation and Chi-square, t-tests and one-way analysis of variance. The software used for data analysis was SPSS version 19. Results The mean age of participants in the control group was 91/9 ± 86/91 and in the intervention, group was 33/7 ± 7/58. There was no significant difference between the demographic characteristics, heart self-efficacy and hope scores of the participants in the control and intervention groups. After the intervention, there was a meaningful statistical difference between the two groups at discharge time and 1 month afterward in both hope and cardiac heart self-efficacy scores ( p = 0.001, 0.0001). Conclusion In this study, the implementation of the discharge program was effective in increasing the hope and cardiac self-efficacy of CABG patients and the use of the discharge plan is recommended to improve the outcomes of these patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Andreas Seraphim ◽  
Kristopher D. Knott ◽  
Joao B. Augusto ◽  
Katia Menacho ◽  
Sara Tyebally ◽  

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery effectively relieves symptoms and improves outcomes. However, patients undergoing CABG surgery typically have advanced coronary atherosclerotic disease and remain at high risk for symptom recurrence and adverse events. Functional non-invasive testing for ischaemia is commonly used as a gatekeeper for invasive coronary and graft angiography, and for guiding subsequent revascularisation decisions. However, performing and interpreting non-invasive ischaemia testing in patients post CABG is challenging, irrespective of the imaging modality used. Multiple factors including advanced multi-vessel native vessel disease, variability in coronary hemodynamics post-surgery, differences in graft lengths and vasomotor properties, and complex myocardial scar morphology are only some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that complicate ischaemia evaluation in this patient population. Systematic assessment of the impact of these challenges in relation to each imaging modality may help optimize diagnostic test selection by incorporating clinical information and individual patient characteristics. At the same time, recent technological advances in cardiac imaging including improvements in image quality, wider availability of quantitative techniques for measuring myocardial blood flow and the introduction of artificial intelligence-based approaches for image analysis offer the opportunity to re-evaluate the value of ischaemia testing, providing new insights into the pathophysiological processes that determine outcomes in this patient population.

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