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Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2492
Author(s):  
Wing-Shan Yu ◽  
So-Hyun Kwon ◽  
Stephen Kugbere Agadagba ◽  
Leanne-Lai-Hang Chan ◽  
Kah-Hui Wong ◽  
...  

Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) has emerged as a non-invasive neuromodulation approach that exerts neuroprotection via diverse mechanisms, including neurotrophic, neuroplastic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-glutamatergic, and vasodilation mechanisms. Although current studies of TES have mainly focused on its applications in ophthalmology, several lines of evidence point towards its putative use in treating depression. Apart from stimulating visual-related structures and promoting visual restoration, TES has also been shown to activate brain regions that are involved in mood alterations and can induce antidepressant-like behaviour in animals. The beneficial effects of TES in depression were further supported by its shared mechanisms with FDA-approved antidepressant treatments, including its neuroprotective properties against apoptosis and inflammation, and its ability to enhance the neurotrophic expression. This article critically reviews the current findings on the neuroprotective effects of TES and provides evidence to support our hypothesis that TES possesses antidepressant effects.


Author(s):  
Arianna Rinaldi ◽  
Margherita Maioli ◽  
Márcia C. Marins Martins ◽  
Pollyanna Celso Felipe de Castro ◽  
Natália Almeida Prado de Oliveira Silva ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives Allostatic overload occurs when environmental factors become excessive for the individual capacity of neurobiological response and can trigger internalizing disorders. These disorders have a strong impact on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can exacerbate ASD symptoms and deficits. A non-invasive neurobiological stimulation technology, called the radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC), has been shown to be effective in improving internalizing disorders and remodeling the individual allostatic response. On these premises, REAC neurobiological stimulation treatments have been introduced for the treatment of internalizing disorders in ASD. The aim of this current research was to retrospectively verify the effects of REAC treatments on motor, cognitive, and behavioral skills and symptoms, assessed using the Autism Profiling Questionnaire (APQ). Methods Data were collected through administration of the APQ to the caregivers of 112 individuals with ASD. The caregivers rated every cluster of the questionnaire with a score based on an evaluation scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results At the 3-month follow-up, the caregivers perceived and rated a global improvement of the individuals with ASD in all clusters. Conclusions This research suggests that the mitigating effects of REAC neuromodulation treatments in relation to the severity of internalizing disorders can enhance the quality of life and the autonomy of individuals with ASD, as shown by the shift in the median values in all 21 items of the APQ toward an improvement in symptoms and skills.


Author(s):  
Maja Kotowska ◽  
Justyna Urbaniak ◽  
Wojciech J. Falęcki ◽  
Piotr Łazarewicz ◽  
Mateusz Masiak ◽  
...  

Background: Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It affects approximately 6–12% among reproductive-age women. Laparoscopy is still the gold standard for diagnosing it. Since an average of couple of years elapses from the onset of symptoms to the definitive diagnosis, analysis of symptoms could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed online in November 2019. It contained 23 closed questions, which covered two areas: knowledge and awareness of endometriosis symptoms and its presence among respondents. Results: A total of 3319 women completed the survey, of which 328 were diagnosed with endometriosis (9.9%). The symptoms of endometriosis most often indicated by the general population were infertility and dysmenorrhea. In contrast, those least frequently indicated were painful defecation and dysuria. Respondents suffering from endometriosis indicated that they often or sometimes experienced dysmenorrhea (83%, n = 273), pelvic pain not related to menstruation (72%, n = 235), dyspareunia (68%, n = 223) and painful defecation or dysuria (40%, n = 132). Conclusions: Since the search for a non-invasive diagnostic endometriosis marker has been conducted for many years without success so far, it seems that awareness of the clinical presentation and reported symptoms may help to provide earlier diagnoses.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fannie Allen Demers ◽  
Andrea Zangrandi ◽  
Cyril Schneider

Objective: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common pain condition characterized by the changes in the brain that are not yet addressed by conventional treatment regimens. Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) of muscles is painless and non-invasive and can influence these changes (the induction of brain plasticity) to reduce pain and improve motricity. In patients with CRPS, this open-label pilot study tested rPMS after-effects on the pain intensity and sensorimotor control of the upper limb along with the excitability changes of the primary motor cortex (M1).Methods: Eight patients with CRPS were enrolled in a single-session program. Patients were tested at pre- and post-rPMS over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle. The clinical outcomes were pain intensity, proprioception, active range of motion (ROM), and grip strength. M1 excitability was tested using the single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1.Results: In our small sample study, rPMS reduced instant and week pain, improved proprioception and ROM, and reduced the hemispheric imbalance of several TMS outcomes. The more M1 contralateral to the CRPS side was hyperactivated at baseline, the more pain was reduced.Discussion: This open-label pilot study provided promising findings for the use of rPMS in CRPS with a focus on M1 plastic changes. Future randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials should confirm the existence of a causal relationship between the TMS outcomes and post-rPMS decrease of pain. This will favor the development of personalized treatments of peripheral non-invasive neurostimulation in CRPS.


Author(s):  
Yang Lu ◽  
Qingqing Zhou ◽  
Lin Xu

The measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which is an important indicator of the inflammatory process, has received increasing attention recently because it is easy to extract from body fluid and serves as an early sign of a serious systemic inflammatory disease. Developing fast and simple detection methods to quantify the concentration of TNF-α is essential. Saliva, tears, and urine, which can easily be sampled in a non-invasive way, are considered to be important matrices for monitoring and assessing the physiological status of humans; importantly, they also provide an ideal window for monitoring the concentration of TNF-α. As a fast, accurate, inexpensive, portable, and scalable method, electrochemical biosensors are very promising for biomarker detection in matrices obtained in a non-invasive manner. This review summarises and compares the electrochemical biosensors for the detection of TNF-α in a non-invasive manner and highlights recent advances and future prospects in developing high-performance electrochemical platforms for noninvasive measurement of TNF-α.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrea Zangrandi ◽  
Fannie Allen Demers ◽  
Cyril Schneider

Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare debilitating disorder characterized by severe pain affecting one or more limbs. CRPS presents a complex multifactorial physiopathology. The peripheral and sensorimotor abnormalities reflect maladaptive changes of the central nervous system. These changes of volume, connectivity, activation, metabolism, etc., could be the keys to understand chronicization, refractoriness to conventional treatment, and developing more efficient treatments.Objective: This review discusses the use of non-pharmacological, non-invasive neurostimulation techniques in CRPS, with regard to the CRPS physiopathology, brain changes underlying chronicization, conventional approaches to treat CRPS, current evidence, and mechanisms of action of peripheral and brain stimulation.Conclusion: Future work is warranted to foster the evidence of the efficacy of non-invasive neurostimulation in CRPS. It seems that the approach has to be individualized owing to the integrity of the brain and corticospinal function. Non-invasive neurostimulation of the brain or of nerve/muscles/spinal roots, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, represents a fertile ground to develop more efficient approaches for pain management in CRPS.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kentaro Ago ◽  
Narihito Nagoshi ◽  
Kent Imaizumi ◽  
Takahiro Kitagawa ◽  
Momotaro Kawai ◽  
...  

Abstract Expectations for neural stem/progenitor cell (NS/PC) transplantation as a treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) are increasing. However, whether and how grafted cells are incorporated into the host neural circuit and contribute to motor function recovery remain unknown. The aim of this project was to establish a novel non-invasive in vivo imaging system to visualize the activity of neural grafts by which we can simultaneously demonstrate the circuit-level integration between the graft and host, and the contribution of graft neuronal activity to host behaviour. We introduced Akaluc, a newly engineered luciferase, under control of a potent neuronal activity-dependent synthetic promoter, E-SARE, into NS/PCs and engrafted the cells into SCI model mice. Through the use of this system, we reveal that the activity of grafted cells was integrated with host behaviour and driven by host neural circuit inputs. This non-invasive system is expected to help elucidate the therapeutic mechanism of cell transplantation treatment for SCI and determine better therapy techniques that maximize the function of cells in the host circuit.


Author(s):  
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya ◽  
Alexander Khorovodov ◽  
Ivan Fedosov ◽  
Alexey Pavlov ◽  
Alexander Shirokov ◽  
...  

The lymphatic system of the brain meninges and head plays a crucial role in the clearance of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), from the brain. The development of methods to modulate lymphatic clearance of Aβ from the brain coild be a revolutionary step in the therapy of AD. The opening of the blood-brain barrier (OBBB) by focused ultrasound is considered as a possible tool for stimulation of clearance of Aβ from the brain of humans and animals. Here, we propose an alternative method of non-invasive music-induced OBBB that is accompanied by the activation of clearance of fluorescent Aβ (Fαβ) from the mouse brain. Using confocal imaging, fluorescence microscopy and magnetic resonance tomography, we clearly demonstrate that OBBB by music stimulates the movement of Fαβ and Omniscan in the cerebrospinal fluid and lymphatic clearance of Fαβ from the brain. We propose the extended detrended fluctuation analysis (EDFA) as a promising method for the identification of OBBB markers in the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns. These pilot results suggest that music-induced OBBB and the EDFA analysis of EEG can be a non-invasive, low cost, labelling free, clinical perspective and completely new approach for the treatment and monitoring of AD.


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