question answering
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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Yongqi Li ◽  
Wenjie Li ◽  
Liqiang Nie

In recent years, conversational agents have provided a natural and convenient access to useful information in people’s daily life, along with a broad and new research topic, conversational question answering (QA). On the shoulders of conversational QA, we study the conversational open-domain QA problem, where users’ information needs are presented in a conversation and exact answers are required to extract from the Web. Despite its significance and value, building an effective conversational open-domain QA system is non-trivial due to the following challenges: (1) precisely understand conversational questions based on the conversation context; (2) extract exact answers by capturing the answer dependency and transition flow in a conversation; and (3) deeply integrate question understanding and answer extraction. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose an end-to-end Dynamic Graph Reasoning approach to Conversational open-domain QA (DGRCoQA for short). DGRCoQA comprises three components, i.e., a dynamic question interpreter (DQI), a graph reasoning enhanced retriever (GRR), and a typical Reader, where the first one is developed to understand and formulate conversational questions while the other two are responsible to extract an exact answer from the Web. In particular, DQI understands conversational questions by utilizing the QA context, sourcing from predicted answers returned by the Reader, to dynamically attend to the most relevant information in the conversation context. Afterwards, GRR attempts to capture the answer flow and select the most possible passage that contains the answer by reasoning answer paths over a dynamically constructed context graph . Finally, the Reader, a reading comprehension model, predicts a text span from the selected passage as the answer. DGRCoQA demonstrates its strength in the extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset. It significantly outperforms the existing methods and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Shangsong Liang ◽  
Yupeng Luo ◽  
Zaiqiao Meng

In this article, we study the task of user profiling in question answering communities (QACs). Previous user profiling algorithms suffer from a number of defects: they regard users and words as atomic units, leading to the mismatch between them; they are designed for other applications but not for QACs; and some semantic profiling algorithms do not co-embed users and words, leading to making the affinity measurement between them difficult. To improve the profiling performance, we propose a neural Flow-based Constrained Co-embedding Model, abbreviated as FCCM. FCCM jointly co-embeds the vector representations of both users and words in QACs such that the affinities between them can be semantically measured. Specifically, FCCM extends the standard variational auto-encoder model to enforce the inferred embeddings of users and words subject to the voting constraint, i.e., given a question and the users who answer this question in the community, representations of the users whose answers receive more votes are closer to the representations of the words associated with these answers, compared with representations of whose receiving fewer votes. In addition, FCCM integrates normalizing flow into the variational auto-encoder framework to avoid the assumption that the distributions of the embeddings are Gaussian, making the inferred embeddings fit the real distributions of the data better. Experimental results on a Chinese Zhihu question answering dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed FCCM model for the task of user profiling in QACs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Courtney B. Hilton ◽  
Micah B. Goldwater ◽  
Dale Hancock ◽  
Matthew Clemson ◽  
Alice Huang ◽  

How can the scalable powers of peer learning and online technologies be most effectively used to support conceptual understanding in science education? This paper reviews cognitive science research on how people learn via question answering and authoring and evaluates a promising novel learning design that applies these principles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 0-0

In the recent times transfer learning models have known to exhibited good results in the area of text classification for question-answering, summarization, next word prediction but these learning models have not been extensively used for the problem of hate speech detection yet. We anticipate that these networks may give better results in another task of text classification i.e. hate speech detection. This paper introduces a novel method of hate speech detection based on the concept of attention networks using the BERT attention model. We have conducted exhaustive experiments and evaluation over publicly available datasets using various evaluation metrics (precision, recall and F1 score). We show that our model outperforms all the state-of-the-art methods by almost 4%. We have also discussed in detail the technical challenges faced during the implementation of the proposed model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-43
Ruqing Zhang ◽  
Jiafeng Guo ◽  
Lu Chen ◽  
Yixing Fan ◽  
Xueqi Cheng

Question generation is an important yet challenging problem in Artificial Intelligence (AI), which aims to generate natural and relevant questions from various input formats, e.g., natural language text, structure database, knowledge base, and image. In this article, we focus on question generation from natural language text, which has received tremendous interest in recent years due to the widespread applications such as data augmentation for question answering systems. During the past decades, many different question generation models have been proposed, from traditional rule-based methods to advanced neural network-based methods. Since there have been a large variety of research works proposed, we believe it is the right time to summarize the current status, learn from existing methodologies, and gain some insights for future development. In contrast to existing reviews, in this survey, we try to provide a more comprehensive taxonomy of question generation tasks from three different perspectives, i.e., the types of the input context text, the target answer, and the generated question. We take a deep look into existing models from different dimensions to analyze their underlying ideas, major design principles, and training strategies We compare these models through benchmark tasks to obtain an empirical understanding of the existing techniques. Moreover, we discuss what is missing in the current literature and what are the promising and desired future directions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Yang Deng ◽  
Yuexiang Xie ◽  
Yaliang Li ◽  
Min Yang ◽  
Wai Lam ◽  

Answer selection, which is involved in many natural language processing applications, such as dialog systems and question answering (QA), is an important yet challenging task in practice, since conventional methods typically suffer from the issues of ignoring diverse real-world background knowledge. In this article, we extensively investigate approaches to enhancing the answer selection model with external knowledge from knowledge graph (KG). First, we present a context-knowledge interaction learning framework, Knowledge-aware Neural Network, which learns the QA sentence representations by considering a tight interaction with the external knowledge from KG and the textual information. Then, we develop two kinds of knowledge-aware attention mechanism to summarize both the context-based and knowledge-based interactions between questions and answers. To handle the diversity and complexity of KG information, we further propose a Contextualized Knowledge-aware Attentive Neural Network, which improves the knowledge representation learning with structure information via a customized Graph Convolutional Network and comprehensively learns context-based and knowledge-based sentence representation via the multi-view knowledge-aware attention mechanism. We evaluate our method on four widely used benchmark QA datasets, including WikiQA, TREC QA, InsuranceQA, and Yahoo QA. Results verify the benefits of incorporating external knowledge from KG and show the robust superiority and extensive applicability of our method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Xiao Zhang ◽  
Meng Liu ◽  
Jianhua Yin ◽  
Zhaochun Ren ◽  
Liqiang Nie

With the increasing prevalence of portable devices and the popularity of community Question Answering (cQA) sites, users can seamlessly post and answer many questions. To effectively organize the information for precise recommendation and easy searching, these platforms require users to select topics for their raised questions. However, due to the limited experience, certain users fail to select appropriate topics for their questions. Thereby, automatic question tagging becomes an urgent and vital problem for the cQA sites, yet it is non-trivial due to the following challenges. On the one hand, vast and meaningful topics are available yet not utilized in the cQA sites; how to model and tag them to relevant questions is a highly challenging problem. On the other hand, related topics in the cQA sites may be organized into a directed acyclic graph. In light of this, how to exploit relations among topics to enhance their representations is critical. To settle these challenges, we devise a graph-guided topic ranking model to tag questions in the cQA sites appropriately. In particular, we first design a topic information fusion module to learn the topic representation by jointly considering the name and description of the topic. Afterwards, regarding the special structure of topics, we propose an information propagation module to enhance the topic representation. As the comprehension of questions plays a vital role in question tagging, we design a multi-level context-modeling-based question encoder to obtain the enhanced question representation. Moreover, we introduce an interaction module to extract topic-aware question information and capture the interactive information between questions and topics. Finally, we utilize the interactive information to estimate the ranking scores for topics. Extensive experiments on three Chinese cQA datasets have demonstrated that our proposed model outperforms several state-of-the-art competitors.

Tianyong Hao ◽  
Xinxin Li ◽  
Yulan He ◽  
Fu Lee Wang ◽  
Yingying Qu

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