Vital Role
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2021 ◽  
Martijn A. Wijnhoven

Mail armour (commonly mislabelled 'chainmail') was used for more than two millennia on the battlefield. After its invention in the Iron Age, mail rapidly spread all over Europe and beyond. The Roman army, keen on new military technology, soon adopted mail armour and used it successfully for centuries. Its history did not stop there and mail played a vital role in warfare during the Middle Ages up to the Early Modern Period. Given its long history, one would think mail is a well-documented material, but that is not the case. For the first time, this books lays a solid foundation for the understanding of mail armour and its context through time. It applies a long-term multi-dimensional approach to extract a wealth of as yet untapped information from archaeological, iconographic and written sources. This is complemented with technical insights on the mail maker’s chaîne opératoire.

Lire Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 233-253
Christy Tisnawijaya ◽  
Geni Kurniati

The issue of the environmental problem has been prevalent especially in the contemporary era. The fact that Mother Earth is currently facing a lot of environmental concerns is the central discussion of the selected children’s picture books. Hence, this study aims to analyze how the picture books successfully capture the idea that trees are the symbol of Mother Earth per se. The selected picture books to be discussed are: A Tree is Nice by Janice May Udry (1984), The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein (1992), Red Knit Cap Girl and The Reading Tree by Naoko Stoop (2014), Tree by Britta Teckentrup (2015) and The Tree by Neil Layton (2016). By scrutinizing the narrative and illustrative elements of the picture books, this study sheds light on how the ecosystems are held together by trees. The trees play a vital role in balancing and maintaining the world’s ecosystems. Moreover, the trees are valuable for providing environmental and social benefits. Hence, taking care of the trees can be perceived as maintaining a sustainable life for both the living and nonliving things. The underlying theories to support the discussion are those of ecocriticism, narrative and illustrative elements, and the trees as metaphor of the Mother Earth, all of which are interconnected in children’s picture books.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sumit Ghosh ◽  
Debashis Ghosh ◽  
Alakananda Hajra

Abstract An environmentally benign, stable yet efficient organocatalyst is highly desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry and catalysis. Imidazole-based zwitterionic-type molten salts are a new type of organocatalysts with high catalytic application in various organic transformations with added advantage of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) property. Most importantly, these ionic-liquid catalysts are easily recyclable and subsequently reusable for multiple times without loss of significant catalytic efficiency. It has also been evident that C2–H of the imidazole has a vital role in catalyzing the reaction via electrophilic activation. Moreover, by changing the cations and/or anions, the properties of ILs can be tuned in many ways. In this article, the role of imidazolium zwitterionic molten salts as an organocatalyst for selective organic transformations including syn-selective aza-Henry reaction, Erlenmeyer reaction, synthesis of different heterocycles and their functionalization and regioselective ring-opening reactions has been elaborated chronically which will definitely be helping to the readers to explore this new class of organocatalyst for further applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Mohammed Akhtar ◽  
Sameera Rashid ◽  
Issam A. Al-Bozom

Abstract Background Immune checkpoint proteins, especially PD-L1 and PD-1, play a crucial role in controlling the intensity and duration of the immune response, thus preventing the development of autoimmunity. These proteins play a vital role in enabling cancer cells to escape immunity, proliferate and progress. Methods This brief review highlights essential points related to testing for immune checkpoint therapy that histopathologists need to know. Results In recent years, several inhibitors of these proteins have been used to reactivate the immune system to fight cancer. Selection of patients for such therapy requires demonstration of PD-L1 activation on the tumor cells, best done by immunohistochemical staining of the tumor and immune cells using various antibodies with predetermined thresholds. Conclusions Immune checkpoint therapy appears to be promising and is rapidly expanding to include a large variety of cancers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 1848
Aishvarya V. ◽  
Roshine P. ◽  
Elayarani M. ◽  
Mahendravarman P. ◽  
Saravanan S.

Background: Micronutrient deficiencies largely affect pediatric population worldwide. In India, pediatric category is more prone to iron deficiency, the most common micronutrient deficiency disorder which produces haematological as well as non-hematological disturbances. This study aimed to identify the impact of iron deficiency on cognitive function and anthropometric changes in pediatric populations.Methods: A hospital based, prospective observational study was conducted at Department of Pediatrics in Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, 127 participants were enrolled in this study. BKT kit of Intelligence, Electronic weighing machine, Stadiometer, BMI Calculator by CDC guidelines and patient’s haemoglobin values were used in this study.Results: Out of 127 patients, 66 patients had iron deficiency with anemia and remaining 61 had iron deficiency without anemia. Cognitive behaviour was assessed based on the norms and majority were under the category- dull average (52 patients) followed by average (45 patients) and other’s had single digit patients. Growth charts of Indian Academy of Pediatrics were used to assess anthropometric characteristics and majority were in the underweight category (61.4%) followed by average category (38.6 %).Conclusions: Low cognitive scores and underweight were found in participants with low haemoglobin levels. Hence, our study provides convincing evidence that iron plays a vital role in the cognition, motor and physical growth. Awareness about the importance of iron and the health issues associated with its deficiency was also provided to the participants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Rina S. Oktari ◽  
Khairul Munadi ◽  
Rinaldi Idroes ◽  
Hizir Sofyan ◽  
Bokiraiya Latuamury

Knowledge capacity plays a vital role in building community resilience to disasters. However, the problem is that there is no resilience framework that integrates the knowledge creation process. This article introduces a new framework for increasing community resilience based on knowledge creation theory (KCT). This research aims to define the elements that support the Knowledge Creation for Community Resilience (KCCR) and to gain consensus from experts on these factors. This study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with five panellists and three rounds of Delphi technique to determine the assessment of 26 factors (including six additional factors) that have been identified by experts (30, 18 and 11 experts in rounds I, II and III, sequentially). The data analysis was carried out in several stages, and included Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient, consensus appraisal and interrater agreement (IRA) statistical evaluation. The result of the agreement level (AL) analysis shows that the majority of the constructs (96.15%) are in the ‘moderate strong’ category. This study shows that there is a significant consensus (with IRA index [awg(1)] ranging from 0.529 to 1), and panellists confirm the significance of all the key constructs. Consensus was gained from experts on seven elements that support the KCCR. This study establishes a systematic, operational and multidimensional KCCR framework that combines the concepts of knowledge creation, community resilience and disaster preparedness. This framework can be used as a qualitative instrument or guidance to build community resilience based on knowledge creation and a quantitative tool for measuring community resilience in facing disasters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Yi Wang ◽  
Minghong Ding ◽  
Xiaoqing Yuan ◽  
Ruibao Jiao ◽  
Dagao Zhu ◽  

Ovarian cancer is a kind of cancer from the female genital tract; the molecular mechanism still needs to be explored. lncRNA plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and development. Our aim was to identify oncogenic lncRNAs in ovarian cancer and explore the potential molecular mechanism. SNHG15 was initially identified by using GEO datasets (GSE135886 and GSE119054) and validated by tumor tissues and the cell line, identifying that SNHG15 was upregulated in ovarian cancer. Besides, high SNHG15 indicated poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, knockdown SNHG15 suppresses ovarian cancer proliferation and promotes apoptosis. Mechanistically, SNHG15 promotes proliferation through upregulated CDK6 via sponging miR-370-3p. Taken together, our findings emphasize the important role of SNHG15 in ovarian cancer, suggesting that SNHG15 may be a promising target for ovarian cancer.

2021 ◽  
pp. 016224392110517
Shin-etsu Sugawara

Prediction plays a vital role in every branch of our contemporary lives. While the credibility of quantitative simulations through mathematical modeling may seem to be universal, how they are perceived and embedded in policy processes may vary by society. Investigating the ecology of quantitative prediction tools, this article articulates the cultural specificity of Japanese society through the concept of Jasanoff’s “civic epistemology.” Taking COVID-19 and nuclear disasters as examples, this article examines how predictive simulations are mobilized, contested, and abandoned. In both cases, current empirical observation eventually replaces predictive future simulations, and mechanical application of preset criteria substitutes political judgment. These analyses suggest that the preferred register of objectivity in Japan—one of the constitutive dimensions of civic epistemology—consists not in producing numerical results, but in precluding human judgment. Such public calls to eliminate human agency both in knowledge and in policy-making can be a distinct character of Japanese civic epistemology, which may explain why Japan repeatedly withdraws from predictive simulations. It implies the possibility that Western societies’ faith in human judgment should not be taken for granted, but explained.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Zhaonian Hao ◽  
Ruyuan Li ◽  
Yuanyuan Wang ◽  
Shuangying Li ◽  
Zhenya Hong ◽  

AbstractMyeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a group of immature cells that produced by emergency myelopoiesis. Emerging evidences have identified the vital role of MDSC in cancer microenvironment, in which MDSC exerts both immunological and non-immunological activities to assist the progression of cancer. Advances in pre-clinical research have provided us the understanding of MDSC in cancer context from the perspective of molecular mechanism. In clinical scenario, MDSC and its subsets have been discovered to exist in peripheral blood and tumor site of patients from various types of cancers. In this review, we highlight the clinical value of MDSC in predicting prognosis of cancer patients and the responses of immunotherapies, therefore to propose the MDSC-inhibiting strategy in the scenario of cancer immunotherapies. Phenotypes and biological functions of MDSC in cancer microenvironment are comprehensively summarized to provide potential targets of MDSC-inhibiting strategy from the aspect of molecular mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014556132110523
Jaclyn Lee ◽  
Madelyn N. Stevens ◽  
Kelly C. Landeen ◽  
Brittany E. Lipscomb ◽  
Amy S. Whigham

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a suspension of visiting student rotations across the United States. For senior medical students applying into surgical subspecialties, such as otolaryngology, these away rotations serve a vital role in the residency application process. Prior to the pandemic, there was not a virtual alternative to in-person visiting student rotations for applicants. We developed a replicable and expandable program focused on helping prospective otolaryngology applicants (fourth-year medical students) gain exposure to the experiences typically offered via in-person rotations. The goal was to improve otolaryngology-specific knowledge and to help applicants demonstrate specific program interest, without the financial and logistical challenges associated with in-person away rotations.

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