Vital Role
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jin-xiang Wu ◽  
Shu Lin ◽  
Shuang-bo Kong

The human endometrium plays a vital role in providing the site for embryo implantation and maintaining the normal development and survival of the embryo. Recent studies have shown that stress is a common factor for the development of unexplained reproductive disorders. The nonreceptive endometrium and disturbed early maternal-fetal interaction might lead to infertility including the repeated embryo implantation failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion, or late pregnancy complications, thereby affecting the quality of life as well as the psychological status of the affected individuals. Additionally, psychological stress might also adversely affect female reproductive health. In recent years, several basic and clinical studies have tried to investigate the harm caused by psychological stress to reproductive health, however, the mechanism is still unclear. Here, we review the relationship between psychological stress and endometrial dysfunction, and its consequent effects on female infertility to provide new insights for clinical therapeutic interventions in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fozia Fozia ◽  
Rubina Nazli ◽  
Nousheen Bibi ◽  
Sher Alam Khan ◽  
Noor Muhammad ◽  

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a genetic skin disorder that shows heterogeneous clinical fragility. The patients develop skin blisters congenitally or in the early years of life at the dermo-epithelial junctions, including erosions, hyperkeratosis over the palms and soles. The other associated features are hypotrichosis on the scalp, absent or dystrophic nails, and dental anomalies. Molecular diagnosis through whole-exome sequencing (WES) has become one of the successful tool in clinical setups. In this study, three Pakhtun families from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan were ascertained. WES analysis of a proband in each family revealed two novel variants (COL17A1: NM_000494.4: c.4041T>G: p.Y1347* and PLEC: NM_201380.3: c.1283_1285delGCT: p.L426del) and one previously known COL17A1: NM_000494.4:c.3067C>T: p.Q1023*) variant in homozygous forms. Sanger sequencing of the identified variants confirmed that the heterozygous genotypes of the obligate carriers. The identified variants have not only increased the mutation spectrum of the COL17A1 and PLEC but also confirms their vital role in the morphogenesis of skin and its associated appendages. WES can be used as a first-line diagnostic tool in genetic testing and counselling families from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (08) ◽  
pp. 5-30
Aarti Rishi ◽  
Chidanand Patil ◽  
Venu Prasad H D

The growth in technology coupled with low-cost mobile data plans attracts many people to access the Internet, which has resulted in a spike in Online to Offline (O2O) business in India including Online Food Delivery (OFD) platforms. In the present global COVID-19 pandemic, the OFD service providers played a vital role in delivering the food to consumers and enabling the restaurants to keep operating by minimising their losses. With the increase in demand for fast and online foods, many businesses are entering into tier 3 cities in India. This study was conducted in a tier 3 city in the month of February-March 2020 to assess the consumer attitude and perception towards an OFD application, Zomato. The results indicate that the frequency of using an app, monthly expenditure of the respondent and the first five order benefits that the Zomato offers to the customers shows highly significant to the orders they place. However, most of the respondents reported digital trustworthiness, higher service charges, followed by higher prices as the challenges while ordering food. Home-cooked food with 24×7 availability were the expectations of the consumers. As the demand for online food orders increases, there is a huge scope to improve the business, if the company switches to adopt user-friendly services and provide excellent quality products at a reasonable price. Government need to ensure safety in online transactions in order to attract more people to use electronic medium for transaction. The outcome of the study would help the policy makers and OFD players to better understand the insights of consumers towards OFD system especially in a tier III cities and may take new initiative for the improvement of OFD business sector.

2021 ◽  
Adnan Safi ◽  
Yingying Chen ◽  
Abdul Qayyum ◽  
Salman Wahab

Abstract Business strategies play a vital role in a firm’s success but, if not properly executed, can lead to financial irregularities and mispricing, influencing the firm’s performance and leading to stock price crash risk. The present study examines the impact of a firm’s business strategy and market power on stock price crash risk. Following Miles and Snow’s (2003) model, we classify Chinese firms listed on the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges into defenders (conservative) and prospectors’ (aggressive) business strategies over a period of 2006–2019. We employed industry and year fixed effects regression to show that prospectors who follow aggressive strategies are more prone to stock price crash risk than defenders who follow conservative strategies. Additionally, we show that firms with high market power also contribute to increased stock price crash risk. Our results are also robust to alternative control variables and different statistical models like the two-stage least squares method.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Tong Dai ◽  
Ziran Qin ◽  
Huasong Lu ◽  

AbstractEmerging evidence suggests that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) represents a vital and ubiquitous phenomenon underlying the formation of membraneless organelles in eukaryotic cells (also known as biomolecular condensates or droplets). Recent studies have revealed evidences that indicate that LLPS plays a vital role in human health and diseases. In this review, we describe our current understanding of LLPS and summarize its physiological functions. We further describe the role of LLPS in the development of human diseases. Additionally, we review the recently developed methods for studying LLPS. Although LLPS research is in its infancy—but is fast-growing—it is clear that LLPS plays an essential role in the development of pathophysiological conditions. This highlights the need for an overview of the recent advances in the field to translate our current knowledge regarding LLPS into therapeutic discoveries.

2021 ◽  
Abdullah Al Mamun ◽  
Raihanul Bari Tanvir ◽  
Masrur Sobhan ◽  
Kalai Mathee ◽  
Giri Narasimhan ◽  

Long non-coding RNA plays a vital role in changing the expression profiles of various target genes that leads to cancer development. Thus, identifying prognostic lncRNAs related to different cancers might help in developing cancer therapy. To discover the critical lncRNAs that can identify the origin of different cancers, we proposed to use the state-of-the-art deep learning algorithm Concreate Autoencoder (CAE) in an unsupervised setting, which efficiently identifies a subset of the most informative features. However, CAE does not identify reproducible features in different runs due to its stochastic nature. We proposed a multi-run CAE (mrCAE) to identify a stable set of features to address this issue. The assumption is that a feature appearing in multiple runs carries more meaningful information about the data under consideration. The genome-wide lncRNA expression profiles of 12 different types of cancers, a total of 4,768 samples available in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), were analyzed to discover the key lncRNAs. The lncRNAs identified by multiple runs of CAE were added to the final list of key lncRNAs, which are capable of identifying 12 different cancers. Our results showed that mrCAE performs better in feature selection than single-run CAE, standard autoencoder (AE), and other state-of-the-art feature selection techniques. This study discovered a set of top-ranking 128 lncRNAs that could identify the origin of 12 different cancers with an accuracy of 95%. Survival analysis showed that 76 of 128 lncRNAs have the prognostic capability in differentiating high- and low-risk groups of patients in different cancers. The proposed mrCAE outperformed the standard autoencoder, which selects the latent features and is thought to be the upper limit in dimension reduction. Since the proposed mrCAE selects actual features and outperformed AE, it has the potential to provide information that can be used for precision medicine, such as identifying prognostic lncRNAs (this work) and mRNAs, miRNAs, and DNA methylated genes (future work) for different cancers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ligong Yuan ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Shuaibo Wang ◽  
Hang Yi ◽  
Fang Li ◽  

BackgroundLung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common type of lung cancer and is a severe threat to human health. Although many therapies have been applied to LUAD, the long-term survival rate of patients remains unsatisfactory. We aim to find reliable immune microenvironment-related lncRNA biomarkers to improve LUAD prognosis.MethodsESTIMATE analysis was performed to evaluate the degree of immune infiltration of each patient in TAGA LUAD cohort. Correlation analysis was used to identify the immune microenvironment-related lncRNAs. Univariate cox regression analysis, LASSO analysis, and Kaplan Meier analysis were used to construct and validate the prognostic model based on microenvironment-related lncRNAs.ResultsWe obtained 1,178 immune microenvironment-related lncRNAs after correlation analysis. One hundred and eighty of them are independent prognostic lncRNAs. Sixteen key lncRNAs were selected by LASSO method. This lncRNA-based model successfully predicted patients’ prognosis in validation cohort, and the risk score was related to pathological stage. Besides, we also found that TP53 had the highest frequency mutation in LUAD, and the mutation of TP53 in the high-risk group, which was identified by our survival model, has a poor prognosis. lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network further suggested that these lncRNAs play a vital role in the prognosis of LUAD.ConclusionHere, we filtered 16 key lncRNAs, which could predict the survival of LUAD and may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

2021 ◽  
Krystle Graham

<p><b>Clinical nurse managers play a vital role in the healthcare system. They are responsible for the day to day running of departments and ensuring that patients are safely cared for. The leadership behaviour and practices of a clinical nurse manager are fundamental for establishing and maintaining positive workplace culture, which is important for nurse performance and quality patient outcomes. This research sought to understand how clinical nurse managers build positive culture in their workplace and to identify leadership attributes and actions that they perceive to be important for generating positive workplace culture. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the challenges of creating positive workplace culture in Aotearoa New Zealand.</b></p> <p>A qualitative descriptive design was used to capture rich in-depth understanding and insight into clinical nurse manager experiences of positive workplace culture from their position in nursing leadership. Ten clinical nurse managers from one secondary hospital within the North Island of Aotearoa participated in semi structured face-to-face interviews. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis with assistance of NVIVO 12 coding software to manage the process of analysing transcripts. </p> <p>Findings demonstrated that clinical nurse managers deliberately engage in strategies to build positive workplace culture and the more prepared they were for their role, the better equipped they were to do so. Three themes were identified: role preparation, achieving perspective, and intentionality. The theme of role preparation describes the actions clinical nurse managers use to cope with realities of the job, build good teams, and manage uncertainty. The second theme achieving perspective represents the internal processes clinical nurse managers use to understand situations and make decisions. The final theme intentionality describes the leadership strategies clinical nurse managers use to enhance collaborative behaviour and positive relationships within the team. </p> <p>To prepare and develop nurses into leadership positions, organisations and executive leadership teams must actively invest in the preparation of this workforce. Establishing educational prerequisites and having structured orientation and mentoring programmes will build a clinical nurse manager workforce that is equipped to foster positive workplace culture in Aotearoa. Furthermore, conducting performance appraisals habitually will provide a foundation for training and development that is needed to keep nurses motivated and engaged in their workplace.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 474-487
Mengmeng Duan ◽  
Qingxuan Wang ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Jing Xie

Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) is recognized as a versatile cytokine that plays a vital role in regulation of joint development, homeostasis, and diseases, but its role as a biological mechanism is understood far less than that of its counterpart, TGF-β1. Cartilage as a load-resisting structure in vertebrates however displays a fragile performance when any tissue disturbance occurs, due to its lack of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics. Recent reports have indicated that TGF-β2 is involved in the physiological processes of chondrocytes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis, and the pathological progress of cartilage such as osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TGF-β2 also shows its potent capacity in the repair of cartilage defects by recruiting autologous mesenchymal stem cells and promoting secretion of other growth factor clusters. In addition, some pioneering studies have already considered it as a potential target in the treatment of OA and RA. This article aims to summarize the current progress of TGF-β2 in cartilage development and diseases, which might provide new cues for remodelling of cartilage defect and intervention of cartilage diseases.

2021 ◽  
Francis Bailey ◽  
Ahmed Kadhum Fahad

Stephen Krashen has a long and enduring legacy in the field of second language acquisition. His “Input Hypothesis” was among the very first attempts to create a coherent theoretical account of second language learning. Krashen argued that learners can acquire language through the process of comprehending it. While elements of his model have been extensively critiqued, this idea has endured and offers teachers a clear mandate to provide learners with abundant opportunities to making meaning of the target language. Utilizing a case study of an English language learner, Krashen’s model is challenged and enriched by considering the role that motivation and identity play in learning. Teachers tapping into an important source of learner motivation, role models drawn from the local community or broader society, can inspire and energize students’ studies and help them visualize a life in which a second language plays a vital role. Building upon Krashen’s idea of the importance of language teachers and programs creating robust reading programs for a sustained engagement with second language print resources, the authors propose to expand his vision and include all manner of multimedia and technologies. However, such a program can only succeed if teachers mediate their learners’ social identities and motivations for sustained second language learning.

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