science education
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-46
Sarah Heckman ◽  
Jeffrey C. Carver ◽  
Mark Sherriff ◽  
Ahmed Al-zubidy

Context. Computing Education Research (CER) is critical to help the computing education community and policy makers support the increasing population of students who need to learn computing skills for future careers. For a community to systematically advance knowledge about a topic, the members must be able to understand published work thoroughly enough to perform replications, conduct meta-analyses, and build theories. There is a need to understand whether published research allows the CER community to systematically advance knowledge and build theories. Objectives. The goal of this study is to characterize the reporting of empiricism in Computing Education Research literature by identifying whether publications include content necessary for researchers to perform replications, meta-analyses, and theory building. We answer three research questions related to this goal: (RQ1) What percentage of papers in CER venues have some form of empirical evaluation? (RQ2) Of the papers that have empirical evaluation, what are the characteristics of the empirical evaluation? (RQ3) Of the papers that have empirical evaluation, do they follow norms (both for inclusion and for labeling of information needed for replication, meta-analysis, and, eventually, theory-building) for reporting empirical work? Methods. We conducted a systematic literature review of the 2014 and 2015 proceedings or issues of five CER venues: Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE TS), International Symposium on Computing Education Research (ICER), Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE), ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), and Computer Science Education (CSE). We developed and applied the CER Empiricism Assessment Rubric to the 427 papers accepted and published at these venues over 2014 and 2015. Two people evaluated each paper using the Base Rubric for characterizing the paper. An individual person applied the other rubrics to characterize the norms of reporting, as appropriate for the paper type. Any discrepancies or questions were discussed between multiple reviewers to resolve. Results. We found that over 80% of papers accepted across all five venues had some form of empirical evaluation. Quantitative evaluation methods were the most frequently reported. Papers most frequently reported results on interventions around pedagogical techniques, curriculum, community, or tools. There was a split in papers that had some type of comparison between an intervention and some other dataset or baseline. Most papers reported related work, following the expectations for doing so in the SIGCSE and CER community. However, many papers were lacking properly reported research objectives, goals, research questions, or hypotheses; description of participants; study design; data collection; and threats to validity. These results align with prior surveys of the CER literature. Conclusions. CER authors are contributing empirical results to the literature; however, not all norms for reporting are met. We encourage authors to provide clear, labeled details about their work so readers can use the study methodologies and results for replications and meta-analyses. As our community grows, our reporting of CER should mature to help establish computing education theory to support the next generation of computing learners.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Sadia Sharmin

Computer science is a fast-growing field in today’s digitized age, and working in this industry often requires creativity and innovative thought. An issue within computer science education, however, is that large introductory programming courses often involve little opportunity for creative thinking within coursework. The undergraduate introductory programming course (CS1) is notorious for its poor student performance and retention rates across multiple institutions. Integrating opportunities for creative thinking may help combat this issue by adding a personal touch to course content, which could allow beginner CS students to better relate to the abstract world of programming. Research on the role of creativity in computer science education (CSE) is an interesting area with a lot of room for exploration due to the complexity of the phenomenon of creativity as well as the CSE research field being fairly new compared to some other education fields where this topic has been more closely explored. To contribute to this area of research, this article provides a literature review exploring the concept of creativity as relevant to computer science education and CS1 in particular. Based on the review of the literature, we conclude creativity is an essential component to computer science, and the type of creativity that computer science requires is in fact, a teachable skill through the use of various tools and strategies. These strategies include the integration of open-ended assignments, large collaborative projects, learning by teaching, multimedia projects, small creative computational exercises, game development projects, digitally produced art, robotics, digital story-telling, music manipulation, and project-based learning. Research on each of these strategies and their effects on student experiences within CS1 is discussed in this review. Last, six main components of creativity-enhancing activities are identified based on the studies about incorporating creativity into CS1. These components are as follows: Collaboration, Relevance, Autonomy, Ownership, Hands-On Learning, and Visual Feedback. The purpose of this article is to contribute to computer science educators’ understanding of how creativity is best understood in the context of computer science education and explore practical applications of creativity theory in CS1 classrooms. This is an important collection of information for restructuring aspects of future introductory programming courses in creative, innovative ways that benefit student learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Courtney B. Hilton ◽  
Micah B. Goldwater ◽  
Dale Hancock ◽  
Matthew Clemson ◽  
Alice Huang ◽  

How can the scalable powers of peer learning and online technologies be most effectively used to support conceptual understanding in science education? This paper reviews cognitive science research on how people learn via question answering and authoring and evaluates a promising novel learning design that applies these principles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 435-443
Robert Potočnik ◽  
Tanja Košir ◽  
Iztok Devetak

<p style="text-align: justify;">In this article we present research on Slovenian primary school teachers' opinion about the interdisciplinary approach between fine art and science education. With the help of questionnaires, interviews, and analysis of lesson plans, we determined how primary school teachers use this type of interdisciplinary approach, how often and what their views are. We included 138 primary school teachers from every region in Slovenia. It turned out that primary school teachers in Slovenia use an interdisciplinary approach between fine art and science teaching quite often and consider it useful to achieve different aspects of pupils' development. The study revealed that most teachers find it difficult to consider the educational goals of both fields (fine art, science). They often use the connection between the subjects only on an associative level - they only mention the teaching content of one subject quickly and carelessly, without making meaningful connections and without achieving the goals of both subjects. Content taught in this way cannot be considered a cross-curricular approach in the subject sense.</p>

Marcus J.C. Long ◽  
Yimon Aye

The Covid‐19 pandemic, evolving needs of students &amp; mentors, and the drive for global educational equality are collectively shifting how courses are packaged/distributed, ushering a more holistic approach and blending of fields. We recently created interdisciplinary courses in chemical biology aimed at massive open online and small private levels. These courses cover biology, chemistry, &amp; physics, and concepts underlying modern chemical‐biology tools. We discuss what we learned while creating/overseeing these courses: content optimization and maintaining material freshness while fostering a stimulating learning environment. We outline mechanisms that help sustain student attention throughout rapidly‐moving courses, how to integrate adaptability to students&rsquo; needs in the short &amp; long term, and speculate how we could have improved. We believe this will be an important guide for anyone wanting to develop online learning formats ideal for nurturing interdisciplinary scientists of tomorrow.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 857
Raquel Chuliá-Jordán ◽  
Amparo Vilches Peña ◽  
María Calero Llinares

Given the seriousness of the socio-environmental situation we are facing, this study aims to contribute to the involvement of teachers in education for sustainability through the use of non-formal education, particularly the press. The main objectives of the present study are to analyse the use of the press in science education, as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of tools aimed at teachers and trainee researchers in order to encourage and promote attention to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and more specifically SDG 7 (clean and affordable energy for all) in science education. The proposals are carried out using a constructivist methodology in sessions structured in small collaborative groups. The initial results show that attention to the press is still insufficient, but that, nevertheless, the strategies designed contribute to raising awareness of the importance of SDG 7 and to the classroom treatment of the energy issue among the participants in the study who attend a Master’s degree program in secondary education teacher training (specialising in physics and chemistry) and a Master’s degree program in research in specific didactics (specialising in experimental sciences).

2022 ◽  
Henrietta Enam Quarshie ◽  
Raymond Saa-Eru Maalman ◽  
Mahamudu Ayamba Ali ◽  
Yaw Otchere Donkor ◽  
Kingsley Ampong ◽  

Abstract Abstract Background: Cadaveric dissection is an established effective teaching method in anatomical science education. Cadaver acquisition for dissection is however based on voluntary body bequeathment. As a result of the increasing numbers of medical schools and students intake, the challenges of inadequate bodies for education became visible in most parts of the world as the main cadaver source remains anonymous corpses in the custody of the state. Cultural and religious beliefs or commercial purposes are among several factors that influence the decision about body donations. This study investigates the knowledge, attitude and perception of body bequeathing among health science students who benefitted or are potential beneficiary of cadaveric studies and identified factors influencing the bequest of bodies in Ghana for educational purposes among students in University of Health and Allied Sciences. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study recruited 513 students in the bachelor programmes for medicine, physician assistantship, nursing, midwifery, pharmacy and allied sciences at various levels. Both closed-and open-ended questions contained in a designed Questionnaire were administered. Result: About Seventy-four percent (74.1%) of respondents had heard of body bequeathal. Majority (98.3%) agreed body bequeathal was important. However, only 39.6% knew the requirements and processes of body bequeathal. Most (>90%) had a negative attitude towards body bequeathal. Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a high awareness of the importance of body bequeathal for medical education and research but very low procedural knowledge on bequeathing a body among health science students. Also most were unwillingness to donate their body or even encouraging others to donate their body. It is therefore recommended that the medical schools should set up accessible body bequeathal programmes that provides opportunities for interested individuals to be readily assisted through the process of body bequeathal. Keywords: Body Bequeathal, Medical Science Education, Cadaveric Dissection, Anatomical education

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