open domain
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Yongqi Li ◽  
Wenjie Li ◽  
Liqiang Nie

In recent years, conversational agents have provided a natural and convenient access to useful information in people’s daily life, along with a broad and new research topic, conversational question answering (QA). On the shoulders of conversational QA, we study the conversational open-domain QA problem, where users’ information needs are presented in a conversation and exact answers are required to extract from the Web. Despite its significance and value, building an effective conversational open-domain QA system is non-trivial due to the following challenges: (1) precisely understand conversational questions based on the conversation context; (2) extract exact answers by capturing the answer dependency and transition flow in a conversation; and (3) deeply integrate question understanding and answer extraction. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose an end-to-end Dynamic Graph Reasoning approach to Conversational open-domain QA (DGRCoQA for short). DGRCoQA comprises three components, i.e., a dynamic question interpreter (DQI), a graph reasoning enhanced retriever (GRR), and a typical Reader, where the first one is developed to understand and formulate conversational questions while the other two are responsible to extract an exact answer from the Web. In particular, DQI understands conversational questions by utilizing the QA context, sourcing from predicted answers returned by the Reader, to dynamically attend to the most relevant information in the conversation context. Afterwards, GRR attempts to capture the answer flow and select the most possible passage that contains the answer by reasoning answer paths over a dynamically constructed context graph . Finally, the Reader, a reading comprehension model, predicts a text span from the selected passage as the answer. DGRCoQA demonstrates its strength in the extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset. It significantly outperforms the existing methods and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-44
Longxuan Ma ◽  
Mingda Li ◽  
Wei-Nan Zhang ◽  
Jiapeng Li ◽  
Ting Liu

Incorporating external knowledge into dialogue generation has been proven to benefit the performance of an open-domain Dialogue System (DS), such as generating informative or stylized responses, controlling conversation topics. In this article, we study the open-domain DS that uses unstructured text as external knowledge sources ( U nstructured T ext E nhanced D ialogue S ystem ( UTEDS )). The existence of unstructured text entails distinctions between UTEDS and traditional data-driven DS and we aim at analyzing these differences. We first give the definition of the UTEDS related concepts, then summarize the recently released datasets and models. We categorize UTEDS into Retrieval and Generative models and introduce them from the perspective of model components. The retrieval models consist of Fusion, Matching, and Ranking modules, while the generative models comprise Dialogue and Knowledge Encoding, Knowledge Selection (KS), and Response Generation modules. We further summarize the evaluation methods utilized in UTEDS and analyze the current models’ performance. At last, we discuss the future development trends of UTEDS, hoping to inspire new research in this field.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8439
Shukan Liu ◽  
Ruilin Xu ◽  
Li Duan ◽  
Mingjie Li ◽  
Yiming Liu

The commonly-used large-scale knowledge bases have been facing challenges in open domain question answering tasks which are caused by the loose knowledge association and weak structural logic of triplet-based knowledge. To find a way out of this dilemma, this work proposes a novel metaknowledge enhanced approach for open domain question answering. We design an automatic approach to extract metaknowledge and build a metaknowledge network from Wiki documents. For the purpose of representing the directional weighted graph with hierarchical and semantic features, we present an original graph encoder GE4MK to model the metaknowledge network. Then, a metaknowledge enhanced graph reasoning model MEGr-Net is proposed for question answering, which aggregates both relational and neighboring interactions comparing with R-GCN and GAT. Experiments have proved the improvement of metaknowledge over main-stream triplet-based knowledge. We have found that the graph reasoning models and pre-trained language models also have influences on the metaknowledge enhanced question answering approaches.

Jun Xu ◽  
Zeyang Lei ◽  
Haifeng Wang ◽  
Zheng-Yu Niu ◽  
Hua Wu ◽  

Learning to generate coherent and informative dialogs is an enduring challenge for open-domain conversation generation. Previous work leverage knowledge graph or documents to facilitate informative dialog generation, with little attention on dialog coherence. In this article, to enhance multi-turn open-domain dialog coherence, we propose to leverage a new knowledge source, web search session data, to facilitate hierarchical knowledge sequence planning, which determines a sketch of a multi-turn dialog. Specifically, we formulate knowledge sequence planning or dialog policy learning as a graph grounded Reinforcement Learning (RL) problem. To this end, we first build a two-level query graph with queries as utterance-level vertices and their topics (entities in queries) as topic-level vertices. We then present a two-level dialog policy model that plans a high-level topic sequence and a low-level query sequence over the query graph to guide a knowledge aware response generator. In particular, to foster forward-looking knowledge planning decisions for better dialog coherence, we devise a heterogeneous graph neural network to incorporate neighbouring vertex information, or possible future RL action information, into each vertex (as an RL action) representation. Experiment results on two benchmark dialog datasets demonstrate that our framework can outperform strong baselines in terms of dialog coherence, informativeness, and engagingness.

2021 ◽  
Zhaozhen Xu ◽  
Amelia Howarth ◽  
Nicole Briggs ◽  
Nello Cristianini

Every day people ask short questions through smart devices or online forums to seek answers to all kinds of queries. With the increasing number of questions collected it becomes difficult to provide answers to each of them, which is one of the reasons behind the growing interest in automated question answering. Some questions are similar to existing ones that have already been answered, while others could be answered by an external knowledge source such as Wikipedia. An important question is what can be revealed by analysing a large set of questions. In 2017, “We the Curious” science centre in Bristol started a project to capture the curiosity of Bristolians: the project collected more than 10,000 questions on various topics. As no rules were given during collection, the questions are truly open-domain, and ranged across a variety of topics. One important aim for the science centre was to understand what concerns its visitors had beyond science, particularly on societal and cultural issues. We addressed this question by developing an Artificial Intelligence tool that can be used to perform various processing tasks: detection of equivalence between questions; detection of topic and type; and answering of the question. As we focused on the creation of a “generalist” tool, we trained it with labelled data from different datasets. We called the resulting model QBERT. This paper describes what information we extracted from the automated analysis of the WTC corpus of open-domain questions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 669-683
Farah Balaadich ◽  
Elhoussine Azroul

In this paper we prove the existence of weak solutions for a class of quasilinear parabolic systems, which correspond to diffusion problems, in the form where Ω is a bounded open domain of be given and The function v belongs to is in a moving and dissolving substance, the dissolution is described by f and the motion by g. We prove the existence result by using Galerkin’s approximation and the theory of Young measures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 163 (A3) ◽  
MP Mathew ◽  
SN Singh ◽  
SS Sinha ◽  
R Vijayakumar

The study of external aerodynamics of an aircraft carrier is of utmost importance in ensuring the safety of aircraft and pilots during take-off and recovery. The velocity deficit in the forward direction and the downwash together combine to give a sinking effect to the aircraft, along its glideslope path and is known as the ‘burble’ in naval aviation parlance. This phenomenon is primarily responsible for the potential increase in pilot workload on approach to the aircraft carrier. There is little literature in the open domain regarding ways and means to alleviate the burble effect. Unlike in the case of the automobile industry, which has the generic ‘Ahmed body’ and for the frigates/destroyers, for which there is the Simplified Frigate Ship (SFS), on which experiments and validation through CFD could be carried out, by researchers from all over the world, there is no generic Aircraft Carrier model for carrying out experiments and validation of CFD codes. The aim of this study is to define the Generic Aircraft Carrier Model (GAC), as developed at IIT Delhi, and to carry out numerical studies on the GAC and a variant of GAC without the island, BGAC (Baseline GAC), to assess the contribution of the island to the burble behind an Aircraft Carrier. This study gives a quantitative estimation of the effect and contribution of individual components of an Aircraft Carrier (like flight deck, island, etc.) to the burble behind the carrier, and would give a Naval Ship Designer an understanding of the effect of the geometrical configuration of the flight deck and the island on generation of the burble behind the carrier, which could aid the designer in potentially reducing the pilot workload.

2021 ◽  
Swapneel Mehta ◽  
Somdeb Sarkhel ◽  
Xiang Chen ◽  
Saayan Mitra ◽  
Viswanathan Swaminathan ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document