remote sensing data
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2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107373
Abdur Rahim Safi ◽  
Poolad Karimi ◽  
Marloes Mul ◽  
Abebe Chukalla ◽  
Charlotte de Fraiture

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 395
Christoph Pucher ◽  
Mathias Neumann ◽  
Hubert Hasenauer

Today, European forests face many challenges but also offer opportunities, such as climate change mitigation, provision of renewable resources, energy and other ecosystem services. Large-scale analyses to assess these opportunities are hindered by the lack of a consistent, spatial and accessible forest structure data. This study presents a freely available pan-European forest structure data set. Building on our previous work, we used data from six additional countries and consider now ten key forest stand variables. Harmonized inventory data from 16 European countries were used in combination with remote sensing data and a gap-filling algorithm to produce this consistent and comparable forest structure data set across European forests. We showed how land cover data can be used to scale inventory data to a higher resolution which in turn ensures a consistent data structure across sub-regional, country and European forest assessments. Cross validation and comparison with published country statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicate that the chosen methodology is able to produce robust and accurate forest structure data across Europe, even for areas where no inventory data were available.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 244
Arsalan Ghorbanian ◽  
Seyed Ali Ahmadi ◽  
Meisam Amani ◽  
Ali Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Sadegh Jamali

Mangroves, as unique coastal wetlands with numerous benefits, are endangered mainly due to the coupled effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change. Therefore, acquiring reliable and up-to-date information about these ecosystems is vital for their conservation and sustainable blue carbon development. In this regard, the joint use of remote sensing data and machine learning algorithms can assist in producing accurate mangrove ecosystem maps. This study investigated the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) with different topologies and specifications for mangrove classification in Iran. To this end, multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multi-spectral remote sensing data from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 were processed in the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform. Afterward, the ANN topologies and specifications considering the number of layers and neurons, learning algorithm, type of activation function, and learning rate were examined for mangrove ecosystem mapping. The results indicated that an ANN model with four hidden layers, 36 neurons in each layer, adaptive moment estimation (Adam) learning algorithm, rectified linear unit (Relu) activation function, and the learning rate of 0.001 produced the most accurate mangrove ecosystem map (F-score = 0.97). Further analysis revealed that although ANN models were subjected to accuracy decline when a limited number of training samples were used, they still resulted in satisfactory results. Additionally, it was observed that ANN models had a high resistance when training samples included wrong labels, and only the ANN model with the Adam learning algorithm produced an accurate mangrove ecosystem map when no data standardization was performed. Moreover, further investigations showed the higher potential of multi-temporal and multi-source remote sensing data compared to single-source and mono-temporal (e.g., single season) for accurate mangrove ecosystem mapping. Overall, the high potential of the proposed method, along with utilizing open-access satellite images and big-geo data processing platforms (i.e., GEE, Google Colab, and scikit-learn), made the proposed approach efficient and applicable over other study areas for all interested users.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 604
Carlos A. M. Correia ◽  
Fabio A. A. Andrade ◽  
Agnar Sivertsen ◽  
Ihannah Pinto Guedes ◽  
Milena Faria Pinto ◽  

Optical image sensors are the most common remote sensing data acquisition devices present in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). In this context, assigning a location in a geographic frame of reference to the acquired image is a necessary task in the majority of the applications. This process is denominated direct georeferencing when ground control points are not used. Despite it applies simple mathematical fundamentals, the complete direct georeferencing process involves much information, such as camera sensor characteristics, mounting measurements, attitude and position of the UAS, among others. In addition, there are many rotations and translations between the different reference frames, among many other details, which makes the whole process a considerable complex operation. Another problem is that manufacturers and software tools may use different reference frames posing additional difficulty when implementing the direct georeferencing. As this information is spread among many sources, researchers may face difficulties on having a complete vision of the method. In fact, there is absolutely no paper in the literature that explain this process in a comprehensive way. In order to supply this implicit demand, this paper presents a comprehensive method for direct georeferencing of aerial images acquired by cameras mounted on UAS, where all required information, mathematical operations and implementation steps are explained in detail. Finally, in order to show the practical use of the method and to prove its accuracy, both simulated and real flights were performed, where objects of the acquired images were georeferenced.

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