Pulmonary Disease
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (5) ◽  
pp. 393-398
Author(s):  
Tarkan Ozdemir ◽  
◽  
Hatice Kilic ◽  
Nilgun Yilmaz Demirci ◽  
Cigdem Ozdilekcan ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (5) ◽  
pp. 369-375
Author(s):  
Aylin Ozgen Alpaydin ◽  
◽  
Saliha Selin Ozuygur ◽  
Ceyda Sahan ◽  
Kemal Can Tertemiz ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Yu ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Dongyi Liu ◽  
Zhen Chen ◽  
Jinglai Sun ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that seriously threatens people’s health, with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. At present, the clinical diagnosis methods of COPD are time-consuming, invasive, and radioactive. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a non-invasive and rapid COPD severity diagnosis technique suitable for daily screening in clinical practice. Results This study established an effective model for the preliminary diagnosis of COPD severity using lung sounds with few channels. Firstly, the time-frequency-energy features of 12 channels lung sounds were extracted by Hilbert–Huang transform. And then, channels and features were screened by the reliefF algorithm. Finally, the feature sets were input into a support vector machine to diagnose COPD severity, and the performance with Bayes, decision tree, and deep belief network was compared. Experimental results show that high classification performance using only 4-channel lung sounds of L1, L2, L3, and L4 channels can be achieved by the proposed model. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of mild COPD and moderate + severe COPD were 89.13%, 87.72%, and 91.01%, respectively. The classification performance rates of moderate COPD and severe COPD were 94.26%, 97.32%, and 89.93% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. Conclusion This model provides a standardized evaluation with high classification performance rates, which can assist doctors to complete the preliminary diagnosis of COPD severity immediately, and has important clinical significance.


Author(s):  
Ling Yang ◽  
Ning Dong ◽  
Chen Xu ◽  
Lianwei Ye ◽  
Sheng Chen

Acinetobacter sp. is among the ESKAPE organisms which represent the major nosocomial pathogens that exhibited a high resistance rate. A. pittii, frequently associated with antimicrobial resistance particularly to carbapenems, is one of the most common Acinetobacter species causing invasive infection. Pandrug resistant A. pittii has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a patient with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease three years after double lung transplantation and developed severe pneumonia associated with pandrug resistant A. pittii infection. Phenotypic and genomic characteristics of this pandrug resistant isolate (17-84) was identified, and the mechanisms underlying its resistance phenotypes were analyzed. Isolate 17-84 belonged to ST63, carried a non-typable and non-transferable plasmid encoding multiple acquired resistance genes including carbapenemase gene blaOXA-58. Point mutations and acquired resistance genes were identified which were associated with different drug resistance phenotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed phenotypic and genomic characterization of PDR A. pittii causing severe infections in clinical settings. Findings from us and others indicate that A. pittii could serve as a reservoir for carbapenem determinants. The emergence of such a superbug could pose a serious threat to public health. Further surveillance of PDR A. pittii strains and implementation of stricter control measures are needed to prevent this emerging pathogen from further disseminating in hospital settings and the community.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marie-Christine Delmas ◽  
Laetitia Bénézet ◽  
Céline Ribet ◽  
Yuriko Iwatsubo ◽  
Marie Zins ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The burden of undiagnosed obstructive lung disease (OLD) (mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is not fully established, and targets for corrective action are yet to be identified. We assessed the underdiagnosis of OLD and its determinants in France. Methods CONSTANCES is a French population-based cohort of adults aged 18–69 years at inception. We analysed data collected at inclusion in 2013–2014. Undiagnosed OLD was defined as spirometry-confirmed airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal) without prior diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchiectasis. Multivariate analysis was performed with weighted robust Poisson regression models to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of undiagnosed OLD. Results Spirometry results were available for 19,398 participants. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 4.6%. Overall, 64.4% of adults with airflow limitation did not report a previous diagnosis of OLD. Individuals with high cumulative tobacco consumption (≥ 10 pack-years) (aPR: 1.72 [1.28–2.32]), without respiratory symptoms (aPR: 1.51 [1.28–1.78]), and with preserved lung function (aPR: 1.21 [1.04–1.41] for a 10-point increase in FEV1% predicted) had a higher risk of being undiagnosed. Half of symptomatic individuals with airflow limitation (45% of those with moderate to severe airflow limitation) were undiagnosed with OLD. Conclusion Underdiagnosis of OLD is very common among French adults, even in patients with respiratory symptoms. Efforts should be made in France to raise awareness about OLD in the general population, improve the detection of respiratory symptoms, and increase the use of spirometry among primary care professionals.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Qi Ding ◽  
Xia Wei ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Yan-Zhong Gao ◽  
Shu-Di Xu ◽  
...  

Background. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the emphysema index (EI) in distinguishing chronic bronchitis (CB) from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its role, combined with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score, in the evaluation of COPD. Methods. A total of 92 patients with CB and 277 patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to evaluate whether the EI can preliminarily distinguish chronic bronchitis from COPD. Considering the heterogeneity of COPD, there might be missed diagnosis of some patients with bronchitis type when differentiating COPD patients only by EI. Therefore, patients with COPD were classified according to the CAT score and EI into four groups: Group 1 (EI < 16%, CAT < 10), Group 2 (EI < 16%, CAT ≥ 10), Group 3 (EI ≥ 16%, CAT < 10), and Group 4 (EI ≥ 16%, CAT ≥ 10). The records of pulmonary function and quantitative computed tomography findings were retrospectively analyzed. Results. ROC curve analysis showed that EI = 16.2% was the cutoff value for distinguishing COPD from CB. Groups 1 and 2 exhibited significantly higher maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) percent predicted (pred), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal midexpiratory flow of 25–75% pred, carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity (DLCO)/alveolar ventilation (VA), FEV1 % pred p ≤ 0.013 , and maximal expiratory flow 50% pred (all p < 0.05 ) than Group 4. FEV1/FVC and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in Group 3 than in Group 2 ( p = 0.002 and p < 0.001 , respectively). The residual volume/total lung capacity was higher in Group 3 than in Groups 1 and 2 p < 0.05 . Conclusions. The combination of EI and CAT was effective in the evaluation of COPD.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lian-Gang Li ◽  
Hangqierang Cai ◽  
Xiao-Bo Zhou ◽  
Lan Zhang ◽  
Tai Jiu ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT)-related genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from patients diagnosed with NSCLC, COPD, and COPD complicated with NSCLC. RNA from cells was extracted with Trizol reagent. Differential genes were screened and validated using the PCR Array and qRT-PCR, respectively.Results: The expressions of ITGB1, VIM, and MMP-9 were higher in the NSCLC group compared to the COPD group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expressions of ITGB1, VIM, MMP-9, and Notch1 were higher, and the expression of KRT14 was lower in the complicated group compared to the NSCLC group (P<0.05).In the NSCLC subgroup, MMP-9 and Notch1 were highly expressed in the lung adenocarcinoma group (P < 0.05) compared to the squamous cell lung carcinoma group.Conclusions: The upregulation of ITGB1, VIM, MMP-9, and Notch1 and downregulation of KRT14 might be closely related to the occurrence and development of NSCLC, mainly lung adenocarcinoma.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andy Dickens

2021 ◽  
pp. 60-64
Author(s):  
А. М. ЖУКЕМБАЕВА ◽  
К.С. ЛАТКИНА ◽  
К. М. КАПАРОВА ◽  
А.К. КУАТ ◽  
Ж. К. АТХАН ◽  
...  

Проведен анализ результатов изменений иммунологических показателей на фоне проводимого лечения обострения ХОБЛ, проведенного у 55 больных. Все больные, рассматриваемые в нашей работе, подписали письменное информированное согласие на участие в программе исследований и неразглашении личных данных. Установлено, что через 7 суток после начала лечения уровень IgM в сыворотке крови во II группе, где проводилась озонотерапия, был достоверно меньше, чем в I, что свидетельствовало о более быстрой регрессии воспалительного процесса во II группе (P< 0,05). При этом показатели HCT-индуцированного фагоцитоза, на фоне проводимой озонотерапии во II группе, были достоверно больше, чем в I, где озонотерапия не проводилась (P<0,05). То есть, резервы кислород зависимой фагоцитарной активности нейтрофилов во II группе на фоне проведения озонотерапии были более функционально активны. Особого внимания заслуживает то, что во II группе элиминация ЦИК происходила достоверно быстрее, чем в I (P< 0,05). Это свидетельствовало об эффективности применения озонотерапии при лечении обострения ХОБЛ. Таким образом, положительное влияние инфузионной озонотерапии на различные звенья воспаления при обострении ХОБЛ свидетельствуют о перспективности дальнейших исследований в этом направлении. The analysis of the results of changes in immunological parameters in the treatment of complications of COPD in 55 patients. All patients considered in our study signed a written informed consent to participate in the study program and not to disclose their personal data. Serum IgM levels in group II treated with ozone therapy 7 days after the start of treatment were significantly lower than in group I, indicating a more rapid regression of the inflammatory process in group II (P <0.05). At the same time, the incidence of HCT-induced phagocytosis in group II ozone therapy was significantly higher than in group I without ozone therapy (P <0.05). That is, in the context of ozone therapy, the reserves of oxygen-dependent phagocytic activity of neutrophils of group II were functionally active. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the elimination of AIC in group II was faster than in group I (P <0.05). This demonstrated the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the treatment of COPD exacerbations. Thus, the positive effect of infusion ozone therapy at different stages of inflammation during the exacerbation of COPD indicates the prospects for further research in this area.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258243
Author(s):  
Jacquelyn Jacobs ◽  
Amy K. Johnson ◽  
Arianna Boshara ◽  
Bijou Hunt ◽  
Christina Khouri ◽  
...  

Millions of Americans have been infected with COVID-19 and communities of color have been disproportionately burdened. We investigated the relationship between demographic characteristics and COVID-19 positivity, and comorbidities and severe COVID-19 illness (use of mechanical ventilation and length of stay) within a racial/ethnic minority population. Patients tested for COVID-19 between March 2020 and January 2021 (N = 14171) were 49.9% (n = 7072) female; 50.1% (n = 7104) non-Hispanic Black; 33.2% (n = 4698) Hispanic; and 23.6% (n = 3348) aged 65+. Overall COVID-19 positivity was 16.1% (n = 2286). Compared to females, males were 1.1 times more likely to test positive (p = 0.014). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic persons were 1.4 (p = 0.003) and 2.4 (p<0.001) times more likely, respectively, to test positive. Compared to persons ages 18–24, the odds of testing positive were statistically significantly higher for every age group except 25–34, and those aged 65+ were 2.8 times more likely to test positive (p<0.001). Adjusted for race, sex, and age, COVID-positive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were 1.9 times more likely to require a ventilator compared to those without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p = 0.001). Length of stay was not statistically significantly associated with any of the comorbidity variables. Our findings emphasize the importance of documenting COVID-19 disparities in marginalized populations.


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