body surface temperature
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Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Joabe R. da Silva ◽  
Gustavo M. de Almeida ◽  
Marco Antonio de S. L. Cuadros ◽  
Hércules L. M. Campos ◽  
Reginaldo B. Nunes ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has detrimentally affected people’s lives and the economies of many countries, causing disruption in the health, education, transport, and other sectors. Several countries have implemented sanitary barriers at airports, bus and train stations, company gates, and other shared spaces to detect patients with viral symptoms in an effort to contain the spread of the disease. As fever is one of the most recurrent disease symptoms, the demand for devices that measure skin (body surface) temperature has increased. The thermal imaging camera, also known as a thermal imager, is one such device used to measure temperature. It employs a technology known as infrared thermography and is a noninvasive, fast, and objective tool. This study employed machine learning transfer using You Only Look Once (YOLO) to detect the hottest temperatures in the regions of interest (ROIs) of the human face in thermographic images, allowing the identification of a febrile state in humans. The algorithms detect areas of interest in the thermographic images, such as the eyes, forehead, and ears, before analyzing the temperatures in these regions. The developed software achieved excellent performance in detecting the established areas of interest, adequately indicating the maximum temperature within each region of interest, and correctly choosing the maximum temperature among them.

2021 ◽  
pp. 187-196
Shabrina Dyah Wibawanti ◽  
Mohammad Yamin ◽  
Rudi Afnan ◽  
Rudy Priyanto

This study aimed to assess the welfare and performance of Bali cattle transported by Camara Nusantara vessel. We observed five-day transporting of 30 Bali cattle (1-2 years old, 100-200kg body weight) from cattle loading at Tenau Port, Kupang and cattle handling during sea transportation to cattle unloading at Tanjung Priok Port, Jakarta. The measured parameters were cattle’s physiological responses, including body surface temperature, foaming (excessive foam around their mouth), respiration (respiration rate during transportation), and panting (any panting behavior during the transport). The behavioral responses measured in this study were feeding behavior (do cattle eat normally during transportation process), lying (can cattle lie normally), agonistic interaction (mounting, head fighting, etc.), freeze during the loading/ unloading process (stop walking during loading and unloading process), coercion (cattle was hit during loading and unloading process), and slip/fall (cattle slipped or fell during loading and unloading process). The welfare evaluation was carried out by scoring system on the observed parameters. The result showed that the cattle showed a normal physiological response, except their body surface temperature was slightly above normal, i.e., 32-35oC. The cattle also showed normal behavior responses except for coercion. The average score gets from this study was 2.5, indicative of slightly poor physiology and behavior when cattle being transported.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Tae-Yoon Eom ◽  
Ju-Won Choi ◽  
Kyong-Ah Yoon ◽  
Soon-Wuk Jeong ◽  
Jung-Hyun Kim

A 16-year-old spayed female Pomeranian dog was presented to the hospital with an acute onset of pain and non-weight-bearing lameness in the right forelimb. On physical examination, knuckling, coolness, pain, and cyanosis were observed in the affected forelimb. Peripheral blood glucose concentration and body surface temperature differed between the right and left forelimbs. Hypercoagulable thromboelastographic results and increased D-dimer levels were suggestive of thrombus. Accordingly, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was administered intravenously. Prompt clinical improvements (including restored warmth of the affected limb) occurred, and rtPA was discontinued after two shots administered 2 h apart owing to concerns of bleeding side effects. The dog was discharged 6 days after admission, and outpatient treatment with clopidogrel was continued for the prevention of re-thrombosis. Following patient stabilization, further examinations for underlying diseases of hypercoagulability were conducted; hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) was diagnosed, and oral trilostane therapy was thus administered. Eight weeks later, the patient regained normal mobility. Finally, in the present canine patient with arterial thrombosis, thrombolysis with rtPA successfully improved clinical symptoms and the following administration of clopidogrel inhibited the formation of additional thrombus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Guang-yao Shang ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Lin Lin ◽  
Hai-qiang Jiang ◽  
Chao Li ◽  

Traditional Chinese medicine has shown promising results in treating the symptoms of hypertension, a major global health concern not yet fully managed by modern medicine. It is, therefore, of high priority to clarify the altered pathophysiology of hypertension in individuals with liver Yang hyperactivity syndrome (HLYH) in response to effective treatments to better understand this disorder. The primary aim of this study was to construct a personalized syndrome discriminant system based on data capable of informing management strategies prior to the initiation of antihypertensive therapy or the implementation of screening strategies in at-risk HLYH. Based on the successful replication of HLYH rat models, we extracted the core discriminant factors of the disorder through the integration of physical signs, biochemical indicators, and metabolic markers. Macro and micro information was correlated to construct a syndrome discriminant system. At the macroscopic level, HLYH rat models characterized by elevated blood pressure were found to be associated with significant changes in water intake, pain threshold, retention time on a rotating platform, and body surface temperature. A total of 27 potential biomarkers and 14 metabolic pathways appeared to reflect the primary metabolic characteristics. Through the integration of these data, we successfully constructed a combined macro-micro personalized syndrome discriminant system, which provides a foundation for research regarding the risk loci of HLYH. Our findings also broaden our understanding of the biological pathways involved in HLYH.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (22) ◽  
pp. 7540
Lei Zhang ◽  
Yanjin Zhu ◽  
Mingliang Jiang ◽  
Yuchen Wu ◽  
Kailian Deng ◽  

Existing wearable systems that use G-sensors to identify daily activities have been widely applied for medical, sports and military applications, while body temperature as an obvious physical characteristic that has rarely been considered in the system design and relative applications of HAR. In the context of the normalization of COVID-19, the prevention and control of the epidemic has become a top priority. Temperature monitoring plays an important role in the preliminary screening of the population for fever. Therefore, this paper proposes a wearable device embedded with inertial and temperature sensors that is used to apply human behavior recognition (HAR) to body surface temperature detection for body temperature monitoring and adjustment by evaluating recognition algorithms. The sensing system consists of an STM 32-based microcontroller, a 6-axis (accelerometer and gyroscope) sensor, and a temperature sensor to capture the original data from 10 individual participants under 4 different daily activity scenarios. Then, the collected raw data are pre-processed by signal standardization, data stacking and resampling. For HAR, several machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms are implemented to classify the activities. To compare the performance of different classifiers on the seven-dimensional dataset with temperature sensing signals, evaluation metrics and the algorithm running time are considered, and random forest (RF) is found to be the best-performing classifier with 88.78% recognition accuracy, which is higher than the case of the absence of temperature data (<78%). In addition, the experimental results show that participants’ body surface temperature in dynamic activities was lower compared to sitting, which can be associated with the possible missing fever population due to temperature deviations in COVID-19 prevention. According to different individual activities, epidemic prevention workers are supposed to infer the corresponding standard normal body temperature of a patient by referring to the specific values of the mean expectation and variance in the normal distribution curve provided in this paper.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3220
Ahmed Abdel-Kareem Abuoghaba ◽  
Mona A. Ragab ◽  
Soheir A. Shazly ◽  
Dariusz Kokoszyński ◽  
Mohamed Saleh

This study evaluated the impact of incubation temperature and spraying hatching eggs with curcumin during the early embryogenesis phase on chick embryo developments, hatchability, physiological body reactions, and hormonal profiles of Dokki 4 chickens. A total of 720 fertile eggs were equally distributed into two groups. In the first group, the eggs were incubated at normal incubation temperature/NIT (37.8 °C and 55–60% RH) for up to 19 days of incubation, whereas those in the second group were incubated in the same conditions except from 6 to 8 day, in which they were daily exposed to chronic incubation temperature/CIT (39.0 °C) for 3 h. Each group was classified into four curcumin treatment doses; the 1st treatment (control) was sprayed with distilled water, while the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th treatments were sprayed with 250, 500, and 1000 mg curcumin/liter distilled water. The results indicated that the lowest hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was obtained in the CIT group (p = 0.02), whereas the highest body surface temperature/BST compared in the NIT group (p = 0.01). Regarding curcumin treatments, the percentages of heart, gizzard, spleen, and T3 hormone levels in the treated group were significantly increased, while the H/L ratio was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) compared with the control. At 8 weeks of age, the testes and ovary percentages in treated groups were significantly (p = 0.05) increased compared with the control. In conclusion, exposure of hatching eggs to high thermal stress (39 °C) during the incubation phase had deleterious effects on chick performance and T3 hormone level. Moreover, spraying hatching eggs had beneficial impacts on growth, reproductive organs, T3 hormone level, and reducing H/L ratio.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2982
Maria Soroko ◽  
Wanda Górniak ◽  
Kevin Howell ◽  
Paulina Zielińska ◽  
Krzysztof Dudek ◽  

Evaluation of body surface temperature change in response to exercise is important for monitoring physiological status. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of high-speed treadmill exercise on body surface temperature using infrared thermography (IRT) in selected body regions of healthy Beagle dogs, taking into account gait and recovery time. Thermographic images of the dogs were taken before exercise (BE), after walk (AW), after trot (AT), after canter (AC), just after second walk (JAE), 5 min after exercise (5 AE), 15 min after exercise (15 AE), 30 min after exercise (30 AE), 45 min after exercise (45 AE), and 120 min after exercise (120 AE). Body surface temperature was measured at the neck, shoulder, upper forearm, back, chest, croup, and thigh. Statistical analysis indicated the highest temperature at the upper forearm, shoulder, and thigh, and the lowest on the croup, back, and neck. The peak values of surface temperature in all ROIs were at AC and JAE and the lowest at 120 AE. The study demonstrated that body surface temperature was influenced by high-speed physical exercise on a treadmill and IRT was a viable imaging modality that provided temperature data from specific body regions. The proximal forelimb and hindlimb were the most influenced by exercise.

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