Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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Alexander M Pallazola ◽  
Jessica X Rao ◽  
Dawit T Mengistu ◽  
Maria S Morcos ◽  
Mariam S Toma ◽  

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung natural killer cells (NKs) lyse autologous lung epithelial cells in vitro, but underlying mechanisms and their relationship to epithelial cell apoptosis in vivo are undefined. Although this cytolytic capacity of lung NKs depends on priming by dendritic cells (DC), whether priming correlates with DC maturation or is limited to a specific DC subset are also unknown. We recruited ever-smokers (≥10 pack-years) (n=96) undergoing clinically-indicated lung resections. We analyzed lung NKs for cytotoxic molecule transcripts and for cytotoxicity, which we correlated with in situ detection of activated Caspase-3/7+ airway epithelial cells. To investigate DC priming, we measured lung DC expression of CCR2, CCR7, and CX3CR1, and co-cultured peripheral blood NKs with autologous lung DC, either matured using LPS (non-obstructed smokers) or separated into conventional DC type-1 (cDC1) versus cDC type-2 (cDC2) (COPD). Lung NKs in COPD expressed more perforin (p<0.02) and granzyme B (p<0.03) transcripts; inhibiting perforin blocked in vitro killing by lung NKs. Cytotoxicity in vitro correlated significantly (Sr=0.68, p=0.0043) with numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells per airway. In non-obstructed smokers, LPS-induced maturation enhanced DC-mediated priming of blood NKs, reflected by greater epithelial cell death. Although CCR7 expression was greater in COPD in both cDC1 (p<0.03) and cDC2 (p=0.009), only lung cDC1 primed NK killing. Thus, rather than being intrinsic to those with COPD, NK priming is a capacity of human lung DC that is inducible by recognition of bacterial (and possibly other) danger signals and restricted to the cDC1 subset.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Manyun Tang ◽  
Yidan Wang ◽  
Mengjie Wang ◽  
Rui Tong ◽  
Tao Shi

Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) overlap syndrome (OS) are thought to be at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular diseases and long-term outcomes in patients with OS.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and 1-year mortality were compared among patients diagnosed with OS (OS group), COPD alone (COPD group) and OSAS alone (OSAS group), and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess independent risk factors for all-cause mortality.Results: Overall, patients with OS were at higher risk for pulmonary hypertension (PH), heart failure and all-cause mortality than patients with COPD or OSAS (all p &lt; 0.05). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.273 (1.050–1.543); p = 0.014], hypertension [aHR: 2.006 (1.005–4.004); p = 0.048], pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) [aHR: 4.774 (1.335–17.079); p = 0.016] and heart failure [aHR: 3.067 (1.521–6.185); p = 0.002] were found to be independent risk factors for 1-year all-cause mortality.Conclusion: Patients with OS had an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and 1-year mortality. More efforts are needed to identify the causal relationship between OS and cardiovascular diseases, promoting risk stratification and the management of these patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Julie Ng ◽  
Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez ◽  
Lesa Begley ◽  
Yvonne J. Huang ◽  
Sergio Poli ◽  

AbstractLymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease with mortality driven primarily by respiratory failure. Patients with LAM frequently have respiratory infections, suggestive of a dysregulated microbiome. Here we demonstrate that end-stage LAM patients have a distinct microbiome signature compared to patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Hui Huang ◽  
Kuizhong Shan ◽  
Min Cai ◽  
Hong Chen ◽  
Fengmei Wu ◽  

Background. Chronic pulmonary heart disease (CPHD) is a common type of heart disease. In China, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main causes of CPHD. At present, there is no specific therapy for COPD-induced CPHD, so it is of great importance to identify a new therapy for CPHD. Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of “Yiqi Huayu, Wenyang Lishui” prescription (YHWLP) on CPHD symptoms. Methods. Eighty patients with COPD-induced CPHD were randomly divided into the control group and the YHWLP group, both involving treatment for 3 months. Both groups were treated with Western medicine, and the YHWLP group was also treated with YHWLP. The changes (relative to baseline) in the symptoms, pulmonary arterial pressure, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), D-dimer (D-D), and ratio of phosphorylated (p)-myosin-binding subunit (MBS)/total (t)-MBS in peripheral blood (which indirectly indicates the activation/inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling) were compared between the two groups. Results. YHWLP plus Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone at reducing symptoms, pulmonary arterial pressure, PT, aPTT, Fbg, D-D, and p-MBS/t-MBS. Conclusion. YHWLP can relieve CPHD by inhibiting the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway, which means YHWLP is a potential treatment for CPHD.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089719002110537
Anamarie Tomaich ◽  
Shawnee Klatt ◽  
Michael W. Nagy

Objective To review the 2020 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) report recommendations and create an algorithm to assist clinicians in determining which chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients qualify for inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) de-escalation. Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed from 2002 to August 2021 was conducted using the search terms inhaled corticosteroids, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and de-escalation and review of the reference lists of identified articles for pertinent citations. Study Selection and Data Extraction Relevant studies and articles were included if they focused on the utilization of ICS in COPD. Data Synthesis The 2020 GOLD report only recommends triple therapy with ICS, long acting beta agonists, and long acting muscarinic antagonists for patients with frequent exacerbations, frequent hospitalizations, or elevated blood eosinophil counts. Despite this clear framework, patients are prescribed ICS without these characteristics. Available evidence suggests that these patients can be de-escalated from ICS therapy without concern for worsening lung function or exacerbations. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: Patients with COPD may be experiencing more risk than benefit on ICS therapy. Clinicians should be knowledgeable on how to evaluate patient therapy for appropriateness and know how to safely deprescribe ICS given their limited efficacy in many COPD patients. Conclusion There remains no specific guidance on how to de-escalate patients off an ICS when the therapy is not indicated. Use of clinical evidence with stepwise algorithms can be models to approach de-escalation of ICS in patients with COPD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Asuka Yoshizaki ◽  
Tatsuya Nagano ◽  
Shintaro Izumi ◽  
Teruaki Nishiuma ◽  
Kyosuke Nakata ◽  

Abstract Background Nocturnal desaturation is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and impacts disease exacerbation and prognosis. In our previous study, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to classify nocturnal desaturation from SpO2 waveform patterns based on data from patients receiving home oxygen therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate nocturnal desaturation in patients with COPD based on SpO2 waveform patterns and the associations between the waveforms and clinical data. Methods We investigated patients diagnosed with COPD and measured SpO2 and nasal airflow with a type 4 portable long-term recordable pulse oximeter. Then, we classified the SpO2 waveforms with the algorithm and compared the clinical data. Results One hundred fifty-three patients (136 male and 17 female) were analysed. One hundred twenty-eight of the 153 (83.7%) patients had nocturnal desaturation, with an intermittent pattern (70.6%), sustained pattern (13.1%) and periodic pattern (68.0%). Intriguingly, desaturation with an intermittent pattern was associated with the apnoea-hypopnea index obtained with the portable monitor, and desaturation with a sustained pattern was associated with the cumulative percentage of time at a SpO2 below 90%. Conclusions We found that nocturnal desaturation was frequently observed in patients with COPD and could be classified into 3 types of waveform patterns.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026921632110289
Tanja Fusi-Schmidhauser ◽  
Katherine Froggatt ◽  
Nancy Preston

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a life-limiting condition with palliative care needs. Despite increasing awareness about the role palliative care can play in care provision for patients with advanced COPD, integration in standard care remains underdeveloped. The unpredictability of the disease progression and misconceptions about palliative care being equivalent to end-of-life care often prevent a timely integrated approach in advanced COPD. Aim: To identify practices designed to increase integration of palliative care in the management of patients with advanced COPD in a respiratory service in Southern Switzerland. Design: A participatory action research approach was chosen and key stakeholders were involved to develop new knowledge and practices, supported by a Theory of Change framework. Data from each cycle and retrospective analysis at the end of the whole research were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting/participants: Five action research cycles with seven healthcare professionals working in palliative or respiratory care settings were conducted. Results: Three elements of integrated palliative care in advanced COPD were identified: multidimensional assessment, healthcare professionals’ education and interdisciplinary team meetings, which are the pillars of a new integrated palliative care model for patients with advanced COPD. Conclusions: The new integrated palliative care model in advanced COPD includes essential elements with a focus on patients, healthcare professionals and care delivery. Further research on testing this model in clinical practice, service development, implementation processes and possible outcomes, including evaluation of the financial impact of integrated palliative care is necessary to foster this care approach across all possible settings.

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