The Generative Models have gained considerable attention in unsupervised learning via a new and practical framework called Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) due to their outstanding data generation capability. Many GAN models have been proposed, and several practical applications have emerged in various domains of computer vision and machine learning. Despite GANs excellent success, there are still obstacles to stable training. The problems are Nash equilibrium, internal covariate shift, mode collapse, vanishing gradient, and lack of proper evaluation metrics. Therefore, stable training is a crucial issue in different applications for the success of GANs. Herein, we survey several training solutions proposed by different researchers to stabilize GAN training. We discuss (I) the original GAN model and its modified versions, (II) a detailed analysis of various GAN applications in different domains, and (III) a detailed study about the various GAN training obstacles as well as training solutions. Finally, we reveal several issues as well as research outlines to the topic.
Spatio-temporal (ST) data is a collection of multiple time series data with different spatial locations and is inherently stochastic and unpredictable. An accurate prediction over such data is an important building block for several urban applications, such as taxi demand prediction, traffic flow prediction, and so on. Existing deep learning based approaches assume that outcome is deterministic and there is only one plausible future; therefore, cannot capture the multimodal nature of future contents and dynamics. In addition, existing approaches learn spatial and temporal data separately as they assume weak correlation between them. To handle these issues, in this article, we propose a stochastic spatio-temporal generative model (named D-GAN) which adopts Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)-based structure for more accurate ST prediction in multiple time steps. D-GAN consists of two components: (1) spatio-temporal correlation network which models spatio-temporal joint distribution of pixels and supports a stochastic sampling of latent variables for multiple plausible futures; (2) a stochastic adversarial network to jointly learn generation and variational inference of data through implicit distribution modeling. D-GAN also supports fusion of external factors through explicit objective to improve the model learning. Extensive experiments performed on two real-world datasets show that D-GAN achieves significant improvements and outperforms baseline models.
As a measure of the brain's electrical activity, electroencephalography (EEG) is the primary signal of interest for brain-computer-interfaces (BCI). BCIs offer a communication pathway between a brain and an external device, translating thought into action with suitable processing. EEG data is the most common signal source for such technologies. However, artefacts induced in BCIs in the real-world context can severely degrade their performance relative to their in-laboratory performance. In most cases, the recorded signals are so heavily corrupted by noise that they are unusable and restrict BCI's broader applicability. To realise the use of portable BCIs capable of high-quality performance in a real-world setting, we use Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) that can adopt both supervised and unsupervised learning approaches. Although our approach is supervised, the same model can be used for unsupervised tasks such as data augmentation/imputation in the low resource setting. Exploiting recent advancements in Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), we construct a pipeline capable of denoising artefacts from EEG time series data. In the case of denoising data, it maps noisy EEG signals to clean EEG signals, given the nature of the respective artefact. We demonstrate the capability of our network on a toy dataset and a benchmark EEG dataset developed explicitly for deep learning denoising techniques. Our datasets consist of an artificially added mains noise (50/60 Hz) artefact dataset and an open-source EEG benchmark dataset with two artificially added artefacts. Artificially inducing myogenic and ocular artefacts for the benchmark dataset allows us to present qualitative and quantitative evidence of the GANs denoising capabilities and rank it among the current gold standard deep learning EEG denoising techniques. We show the power spectral density (PSD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and other classical time series similarity measures for quantitative metrics and compare our model to those previously used in the literature. To our knowledge, this framework is the first example of a GAN capable of EEG artefact removal and generalisable to more than one artefact type. Our model has provided a competitive performance in advancing the state-of-the-art deep learning EEG denoising techniques. Furthermore, given the integration of AI into wearable technology, our method would allow for portable EEG devices with less noisy and more stable brain signals.