generative models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-49
Abdul Jabbar ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Bourahla Omar

The Generative Models have gained considerable attention in unsupervised learning via a new and practical framework called Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) due to their outstanding data generation capability. Many GAN models have been proposed, and several practical applications have emerged in various domains of computer vision and machine learning. Despite GANs excellent success, there are still obstacles to stable training. The problems are Nash equilibrium, internal covariate shift, mode collapse, vanishing gradient, and lack of proper evaluation metrics. Therefore, stable training is a crucial issue in different applications for the success of GANs. Herein, we survey several training solutions proposed by different researchers to stabilize GAN training. We discuss (I) the original GAN model and its modified versions, (II) a detailed analysis of various GAN applications in different domains, and (III) a detailed study about the various GAN training obstacles as well as training solutions. Finally, we reveal several issues as well as research outlines to the topic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Yang Yang ◽  
Hongchen Wei ◽  
Zhen-Qiang Sun ◽  
Guang-Yu Li ◽  
Yuanchun Zhou ◽  

Open set classification (OSC) tackles the problem of determining whether the data are in-class or out-of-class during inference, when only provided with a set of in-class examples at training time. Traditional OSC methods usually train discriminative or generative models with the owned in-class data, and then utilize the pre-trained models to classify test data directly. However, these methods always suffer from the embedding confusion problem, i.e., partial out-of-class instances are mixed with in-class ones of similar semantics, making it difficult to classify. To solve this problem, we unify semi-supervised learning to develop a novel OSC algorithm, S2OSC, which incorporates out-of-class instances filtering and model re-training in a transductive manner. In detail, given a pool of newly coming test data, S2OSC firstly filters the mostly distinct out-of-class instances using the pre-trained model, and annotates super-class for them. Then, S2OSC trains a holistic classification model by combing in-class and out-of-class labeled data with the remaining unlabeled test data in a semi-supervised paradigm. Furthermore, considering that data are usually in the streaming form in real applications, we extend S2OSC into an incremental update framework (I-S2OSC), and adopt a knowledge memory regularization to mitigate the catastrophic forgetting problem in incremental update. Despite the simplicity of proposed models, the experimental results show that S2OSC achieves state-of-the-art performance across a variety of OSC tasks, including 85.4% of F1 on CIFAR-10 with only 300 pseudo-labels. We also demonstrate how S2OSC can be expanded to incremental OSC setting effectively with streaming data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Riccardo Cantini ◽  
Fabrizio Marozzo ◽  
Giovanni Bruno ◽  
Paolo Trunfio

The growing use of microblogging platforms is generating a huge amount of posts that need effective methods to be classified and searched. In Twitter and other social media platforms, hashtags are exploited by users to facilitate the search, categorization, and spread of posts. Choosing the appropriate hashtags for a post is not always easy for users, and therefore posts are often published without hashtags or with hashtags not well defined. To deal with this issue, we propose a new model, called HASHET ( HAshtag recommendation using Sentence-to-Hashtag Embedding Translation ), aimed at suggesting a relevant set of hashtags for a given post. HASHET is based on two independent latent spaces for embedding the text of a post and the hashtags it contains. A mapping process based on a multi-layer perceptron is then used for learning a translation from the semantic features of the text to the latent representation of its hashtags. We evaluated the effectiveness of two language representation models for sentence embedding and tested different search strategies for semantic expansion, finding out that the combined use of BERT ( Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformer ) and a global expansion strategy leads to the best recommendation results. HASHET has been evaluated on two real-world case studies related to the 2016 United States presidential election and COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal the effectiveness of HASHET in predicting one or more correct hashtags, with an average F -score up to 0.82 and a recommendation hit-rate up to 0.92. Our approach has been compared to the most relevant techniques used in the literature ( generative models , unsupervised models, and attention-based supervised models ) by achieving up to 15% improvement in F -score for the hashtag recommendation task and 9% for the topic discovery task.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-44
Longxuan Ma ◽  
Mingda Li ◽  
Wei-Nan Zhang ◽  
Jiapeng Li ◽  
Ting Liu

Incorporating external knowledge into dialogue generation has been proven to benefit the performance of an open-domain Dialogue System (DS), such as generating informative or stylized responses, controlling conversation topics. In this article, we study the open-domain DS that uses unstructured text as external knowledge sources ( U nstructured T ext E nhanced D ialogue S ystem ( UTEDS )). The existence of unstructured text entails distinctions between UTEDS and traditional data-driven DS and we aim at analyzing these differences. We first give the definition of the UTEDS related concepts, then summarize the recently released datasets and models. We categorize UTEDS into Retrieval and Generative models and introduce them from the perspective of model components. The retrieval models consist of Fusion, Matching, and Ranking modules, while the generative models comprise Dialogue and Knowledge Encoding, Knowledge Selection (KS), and Response Generation modules. We further summarize the evaluation methods utilized in UTEDS and analyze the current models’ performance. At last, we discuss the future development trends of UTEDS, hoping to inspire new research in this field.

2022 ◽  
Abraham Nunes ◽  
Selena Singh ◽  
Jared Allman ◽  
Suzanna Becker ◽  
Abigail Ortiz ◽  

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mood disorder involving recurring (hypo)manic and depressive episodes. The inherently temporal nature of BD has inspired its conceptualization using dynamical systems theory, which is a mathematical framework for understanding systems that evolve over time. In this paper we provide a critical review of dynamical systems models of BD. Owing to heterogeneity of methodologies and experimental designs in computational modeling, we designed a structured approach to guide our review in a fashion that parallels the appraisal of animal models by their Face, Predictive, and Construct Validity. This tool, the Validity Appraisal Guide for Computational Models (VAG-CM) is not an absolute estimate of validity, but rather a guide for more objective appraisal of models in this review. We identified 26 studies published before November 18, 2021 that proposed generative dynamical systems models of time-varying signals in BD. Two raters independently applied the VAG-CM to included studies, obtaining a mean Cohen's kappa of 0.55 (95% CI [0.45, 0.64]) prior to establishing consensus ratings. Consensus VAG-CM ratings revealed three model/study clusters: data-driven models with face validity, theory-driven models with predictive validity, and theory-driven models lacking all forms of validity. We conclude that future models should be developed using a hybrid approach that first operationalizes BD features of interest using empirical data (a data-driven approach), followed by explanations of those features using generative models with components that are homologous to physiological or psychological systems involved in BD (a theory-driven approach).

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-38
William Paul ◽  
Armin Hadzic ◽  
Neil Joshi ◽  
Fady Alajaji ◽  
Philippe Burlina

Abstract We propose a novel method for enforcing AI fairness with respect to protected or sensitive factors. This method uses a dual strategy performing training and representation alteration (TARA) for the mitigation of prominent causes of AI bias. It includes the use of representation learning alteration via adversarial independence to suppress the bias-inducing dependence of the data representation from protected factors and training set alteration via intelligent augmentation to address bias-causing data imbalance by using generative models that allow the fine control of sensitive factors related to underrepresented populations via domain adaptation and latent space manipulation. When testing our methods on image analytics, experiments demonstrate that TARA significantly or fully debiases baseline models while outperforming competing debiasing methods that have the same amount of information—for example, with (% overall accuracy, % accuracy gap) = (78.8, 0.5) versus the baseline method's score of (71.8, 10.5) for Eye-PACS, and (73.7, 11.8) versus (69.1, 21.7) for CelebA. Furthermore, recognizing certain limitations in current metrics used for assessing debiasing performance, we propose novel conjunctive debiasing metrics. Our experiments also demonstrate the ability of these novel metrics in assessing the Pareto efficiency of the proposed methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Junyu Chen ◽  
Haiwei Li ◽  
Liyao Song ◽  
Geng Zhang ◽  
Bingliang Hu ◽  

AbstractDeveloping an efficient and quality remote sensing (RS) technology using volume and efficient modelling in different aircraft RS images is challenging. Generative models serve as a natural and convenient simulation method. Because aircraft types belong to the fine class under the rough class, the issue of feature entanglement may occur while modelling multiple aircraft classes. Our solution to this issue was a novel first-generation realistic aircraft type simulation system (ATSS-1) based on the RS images. It realised fine modelling of the seven aircraft types based on a real scene by establishing an adaptive weighted conditional attention generative adversarial network and joint geospatial embedding (GE) network. An adaptive weighted conditional batch normalisation attention block solved the subclass entanglement by reassigning the intra-class-wise characteristic responses. Subsequently, an asymmetric residual self-attention module was developed by establishing a remote region asymmetric relationship for mining the finer potential spatial representation. The mapping relationship between the input RS scene and the potential space of the generated samples was explored through the GE network construction that used the selected prior distribution z, as an intermediate representation. A public RS dataset (OPT-Aircraft_V1.0) and two public datasets (MNIST and Fashion-MNIST) were used for simulation model testing. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of ATSS-1, promoting further development of realistic automatic RS simulation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-28
Mingyu Lee ◽  
Youngseo Park ◽  
Hwisang Jo ◽  
Kibum Kim ◽  
Seungkyu Lee ◽  

Abstract Tire tread patterns have played an important role in the automotive industry because they directly affect automobile performances. The conventional tread pattern development process has successfully produced and manufactured many tire tread patterns. However, a conceptual design process, which is a major part of the whole process, is still time-consuming due to repetitive manual interaction works between designers and engineers. In the worst case, the whole design process must be performed again from the beginning to obtain the required results. In this study, a deep generative tread pattern design framework is proposed to automatically generate various tread patterns satisfying the target tire performances in the conceptual design process. The main concept of the proposed method is that desired tread patterns are obtained through optimization based on integrated functions, which combine generative models and tire performance evaluation functions. To strengthen the effectiveness of the proposed framework, suitable image pre-processing, generative adversarial networks (GANs), 2D image-based tire performance evaluation functions, design generation, design exploration, and image post-processing methods are proposed with the help of domain knowledge of the tread pattern. The numerical results show that the proposed automatic design framework successfully creates various tread patterns satisfying the target tire performances such as summer, winter, or all-season patterns.

2022 ◽  
Martin Treppner ◽  
Harald Binder ◽  
Moritz Hess

AbstractDeep generative models can learn the underlying structure, such as pathways or gene programs, from omics data. We provide an introduction as well as an overview of such techniques, specifically illustrating their use with single-cell gene expression data. For example, the low dimensional latent representations offered by various approaches, such as variational auto-encoders, are useful to get a better understanding of the relations between observed gene expressions and experimental factors or phenotypes. Furthermore, by providing a generative model for the latent and observed variables, deep generative models can generate synthetic observations, which allow us to assess the uncertainty in the learned representations. While deep generative models are useful to learn the structure of high-dimensional omics data by efficiently capturing non-linear dependencies between genes, they are sometimes difficult to interpret due to their neural network building blocks. More precisely, to understand the relationship between learned latent variables and observed variables, e.g., gene transcript abundances and external phenotypes, is difficult. Therefore, we also illustrate current approaches that allow us to infer the relationship between learned latent variables and observed variables as well as external phenotypes. Thereby, we render deep learning approaches more interpretable. In an application with single-cell gene expression data, we demonstrate the utility of the discussed methods.

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