BackgroundPatients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at risk of developing portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) with worse outcomes. This study aims to explore the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of PVST among patients with IBD.MethodsPubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. All the eligible studies were divided according to the history of colorectal surgery. Only the prevalence of PVST in patients with IBD was pooled if the history of colorectal surgery was unclear. The incidence of PVST in patients with IBD after colorectal surgery was pooled if the history of colorectal surgery was clear. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of PVST were pooled by only a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients undergoing imaging examinations. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were calculated.ResultsA total of 36 studies with 143,659 patients with IBD were included. Among the studies where the history of colorectal surgery was unclear, the prevalence of PVST was 0.99, 1.45, and 0.40% in ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), and unclassified IBD, respectively. Among the studies where all the patients underwent colorectal surgery, the incidence of PVST was 6.95, 2.55, and 3.95% in UC, CD, and unclassified IBD after colorectal surgery, respectively. Both the prevalence and incidence of PVST became higher in patients with IBD undergoing imaging examinations. Preoperative corticosteroids therapy (OR = 3.112, 95% CI: 1.017–9.525; p = 0.047) and urgent surgery (OR = 1.799, 95% CI: 1.079–2.998; p = 0.024) are significant risk factors of PVST in patients with IBD after colorectal surgery. The mortality of patients with IBD with PVST after colorectal surgery was 4.31% (34/789).ConclusionPVST is not rare, but potentially lethal in patients with IBD after colorectal surgery. More severe IBD, indicated by preoperative corticosteroids and urgent surgery, is associated with a higher risk of PVST after colorectal surgery. Therefore, screening for PVST by imaging examinations and antithrombotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients should be actively considered.Systematic Review RegistrationRegistered on PROSPERO, Identifier: CRD42020159579.
IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) is an inflammatory disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is common in both humans and veterinarians. Several studies have revealed the pharmacological properties of the oxazoline of palmitoylethanolamide (PEAOXA). Zebrafish larvae were exposed to sodium dextran sulphate (DSS) to induce enterocolitis and study the protective action of PEAOXA. After repetitive exposure with 0.25% DSS, larvae presented gut alteration with an increase in mucus production. Furthermore, DSS exposure induced an increase in the inflammatory pathway in the intestine, related to an increase in the Endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress genes. PEAOXA exposure at a concentration of 10 mg/L decreased the DSS-induced gut damage and mucus production, as well as being able to reduce the inflammatory and ER stress-related genes expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the alterations induced by repeated exposure to DSS were counteracted by PEAOXA action that was able to inhibit the increase in inflammation and ER stress involved in the progression of enterocolitis.