stress related genes
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Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Author(s):  
Davide Di Paola ◽  
Sabrina Natale ◽  
Carmelo Iaria ◽  
Marika Cordaro ◽  
Rosalia Crupi ◽  
...  

IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) is an inflammatory disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is common in both humans and veterinarians. Several studies have revealed the pharmacological properties of the oxazoline of palmitoylethanolamide (PEAOXA). Zebrafish larvae were exposed to sodium dextran sulphate (DSS) to induce enterocolitis and study the protective action of PEAOXA. After repetitive exposure with 0.25% DSS, larvae presented gut alteration with an increase in mucus production. Furthermore, DSS exposure induced an increase in the inflammatory pathway in the intestine, related to an increase in the Endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress genes. PEAOXA exposure at a concentration of 10 mg/L decreased the DSS-induced gut damage and mucus production, as well as being able to reduce the inflammatory and ER stress-related genes expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the alterations induced by repeated exposure to DSS were counteracted by PEAOXA action that was able to inhibit the increase in inflammation and ER stress involved in the progression of enterocolitis.


Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Author(s):  
Gangqiang Cao ◽  
Wenjing Jiang ◽  
Gongyao Shi ◽  
Zhaoran Tian ◽  
Jingjing Shang ◽  
...  

PARP proteins are highly conserved homologs among the eukaryotic poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases. After activation, ADP-ribose polymers are synthesized on a series of ribozymes that use NAD+ as a substrate. PARPs participate in the regulation of various important biological processes, such as plant growth, development, and stress response. In this study, we characterized the homologue of PARP1 in B. rapa using RNA interference (RNAi) to reveal the underlying mechanism responding to drought stress. Bioinformatics and expression pattern analyses demonstrated that two copy numbers of PARP1 genes (BrPARP1.A03 and BrPARP1.A05) in B. rapa following a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event were retained compared with Arabidopsis, but only BrPARP1.A03 was predominantly transcribed in plant roots. Silencing of BrPARP1 could markedly promote root growth and development, probably via regulating cell division, and the transgenic Brassica lines showed more tolerance under drought treatment, accompanied with substantial alterations including accumulated proline contents, significantly reduced malondialdehyde, and increased antioxidative enzyme activity. In addition, the findings showed that the expression of stress-responsive genes, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging related genes, was largely reinforced in the transgenic lines under drought stress. In general, these results indicated that BrPARP1 likely responds to drought stress by regulating root growth and the expression of stress-related genes to cope with adverse conditions in B. rapa.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Akshat Goel ◽  
Chris Major Ncho ◽  
Chae-Mi Jeong ◽  
Yang-Ho Choi

Chickens are exposed to numerous types of stress from hatching to shipping, influencing poultry production. Embryonic manipulation may develop resistance against several stressors. This study investigates the effects of thermoneutral temperature (T0; 37.8°C) with no injection (N0) (T0N0), T0 with 0.6 ml of 10% in ovo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation (N1) at 17.5th embryonic day (ED) (T0N1), thermal manipulation (T1) at 39.6°C from the 10th to 18th ED (6 h/day) with N0 (T1N0), and T1 with N1 (T1N1) on hatchability parameters and hepatic expression of stress-related genes in day-old Arbor Acres chicks. The parameters determined were hatchability, body weight (BW), organ weight, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant-related gene expression. Percent hatchability was calculated on a fertile egg basis. Growth performance was analyzed using each chick as an experimental unit. Eight birds per group were used for organ weight. Two-way ANOVA was used taking temperature and GABA as the main effect for growth performance and gene expression studies. Analysis was performed using an IBM SPSS statistics software package 25.0 (IBM software, Chicago, IL, USA). Hatchability was similar in all the groups and was slightly lower in the T1N1. Higher BW was recorded in both T1 and N1. Intestinal weight and MDA were higher in T0N1 against T0N0 and T1N1, respectively. The expression of HSP70, HSP90, NOX1, and NOX4 genes was higher and SOD and CAT genes were lower in the T1 group. The present results show that T1 and N1 independently improve the BW of broiler chicks at hatch, but T1 strongly regulates stress-related gene expression and suggests that both T1 and N1 during incubation can improve performance and alleviate stress after hatch.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Author(s):  
Yifan Li ◽  
Xiya Meng ◽  
Degang Guo ◽  
Jia Gao ◽  
Qiwei Huang ◽  
...  

Light is perceived by photoreceptors in fungi and further integrated into the stress-activated MAPK HOG pathway, and thereby potentially activates the expression of genes for stress responses. This indicates that the precise control of light conditions can likely improve the conidial yield and stress resistance to guarantee the low cost and long shelf life of Trichoderma-based biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. In this study, effects of wavelengths and intensities of light on conidial yield and stress tolerance to osmotic, oxidative and pH stresses in Trichoderma guizhouense were investigated. We found that 2 μmol photons/(m2 × s) of blue light increased the conidial yield more than 1000 folds as compared to dark condition and simultaneously enhanced conidial stress resistance. The enhanced conidial stress resistance is probably due to the upregulated stress-related genes in blue light, which is under the control of the blue light receptor BLR1 and the MAP kinase HOG1.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 551
Author(s):  
Joanna I. Lachowicz ◽  
Giusi Pichiri ◽  
Marco Piludu ◽  
Sara Fais ◽  
Germano Orrù ◽  
...  

Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) was extracted forty years agofrom calf thymus. Since then, it has been identified as a G-actin binding protein involved in blood clotting, tissue regeneration, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammatory processes. Tβ4 has also been implicated in tumor metastasis and neurodegeneration. However, the precise roles and mechanism(s) of action of Tβ4 in these processes remain largely unknown, with the binding of the G-actin protein being insufficient to explain these multi-actions. Here we identify for the first time the important role of Tβ4 mechanism in ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of cell death, which leads to neurodegeneration and somehow protects cancer cells against cell death. Specifically, we demonstrate four iron2+ and iron3+ binding regions along the peptide and show that the presence of Tβ4 in cell growing medium inhibits erastin and glutamate-induced ferroptosis in the macrophage cell line. Moreover, Tβ4 increases the expression of oxidative stress-related genes, namely BAX, hem oxygenase-1, heat shock protein 70 and thioredoxin reductase 1, which are downregulated during ferroptosis. We state the hypothesis that Tβ4 is an endogenous iron chelator and take part in iron homeostasis in the ferroptosis process. We discuss the literature data of parallel involvement of Tβ4 and ferroptosis in different human pathologies, mainly cancer and neurodegeneration. Our findings confronted with literature data show that controlled Tβ4 release could command on/off switching of ferroptosis and may provide novel therapeutic opportunities in cancer and tissue degeneration pathologies.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Author(s):  
Arthur Nery da Silva ◽  
Michelle Silva Araujo ◽  
Fábio Pértille ◽  
Adroaldo José Zanella

Epigenetics works as an interface between the individual and its environment to provide phenotypic plasticity to increase individual adaptation capabilities. Recently, a wide variety of epi-genetic findings have indicated evidence for its application in the development of putative epi-biomarkers of stress in farm animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate previously reported stress epi-biomarkers in swine and encourage researchers to investigate potential paths for the development of a robust molecular tool for animal welfare certification. In this literature review, we report on the scientific concerns in the swine production chain, the management carried out on the farms, and the potential implications of these practices for the animals’ welfare and their epigenome. To assess reported epi-biomarkers, we identified, from previous studies, potentially stress-related genes surrounding epi-biomarkers. With those genes, we carried out a functional enrichment analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the DNA of swine subjected to different stress-related conditions (e.g., heat stress, intrauterine insult, and sanitary challenges). We identified potential epi-biomarkers for target analysis, which could be added to the current guidelines and certification schemes to guarantee and certify animal welfare on farms. We believe that this technology may have the power to increase consumers’ trust in animal welfare.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qian Liu ◽  
Guang-rui Dong ◽  
Yu-qing Ma ◽  
Shu-man Zhao ◽  
Xi Liu ◽  
...  

Drought is one of the most important environmental constraints affecting plant growth and development and ultimately leads to yield loss. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are believed to play key roles in coping with environmental stresses. In rice, it is estimated that there are more than 200 UGT genes. However, most of them have not been identified as their physiological significance. In this study, we reported the characterization of a putative glycosyltransferase gene UGT85E1 in rice. UGT85E1 gene is significantly upregulated by drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The overexpression of UGT85E1 led to an enhanced tolerance in transgenic rice plants to drought stress, while the ugt85e1 mutants of rice showed a more sensitive phenotype to drought stress. Further studies indicated that UGT85E1 overexpression induced ABA accumulation, stomatal closure, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, increased proline and sugar contents, and upregulated expression of stress-related genes under drought stress conditions. Moreover, when UGT85E1 was ectopically overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic plants showed increased tolerance to drought as well as in rice. Our findings suggest that UGT85E1 plays an important role in mediating plant response to drought and oxidative stresses. This work may provide a promising candidate gene for cultivating drought-tolerant crops both in dicots and monocots.


Author(s):  
Song Chen ◽  
Yue Yu ◽  
Xinyu Wang ◽  
Sui Wang ◽  
Tianjiao Zhang ◽  
...  

Related studies have provided significant insights into polyploid breeding in recent years, but limited research was focused on trees. The genomic information for the growth and response to abiotic stress in polyploidy trees is still largely unknown. Populus alba ’Berolinensis’, also named “Yinzhong poplar”, is a triploid poplar in the northeast of China. This hybrid triploid poplar is widely used as landscape ornamentals in urban areas because of its fast growth and high tolerance to abiotic stress. As an artificially synthesized male allotriploid hybrid, the three monoploid genomes of P. alba ’Berolinensis’ originated from different poplar species, so it is the desired material for studying polyploidy genomic collaboration mechanisms. Therefore, we intensively studied the allelic genomic collaboration mechanism in P. alba ’Berolinensis’. This study generated a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly for the P. alba ’Berolinensis’ consisting of 19 allelic chromosomes. Its three monoploid chromosomes are polymorphic with an average of 42.22 variant sites per allelic gene locus. Meanwhile, we found that stress related genes such as RD22 and LEA7 exhibited structure variations. The above information has all been deployed to our polyploid genome online analysis website TreeGenomes (https://www.treegenomes.com). These polyploid genomic related resources will provide critical foundations for the molecular breeding of P. alba ’Berolinensis’ and help us uncover the allopolyploidization effects on the resistance and traits of polyploidy species deeper in the future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shun Feng ◽  
Wang Lu ◽  
Yongfei Jian ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  
Run Meng ◽  
...  

Botrytis cinerea is one of the most destructive fungal pathogens causing tremendous losses in fresh fruit or vegetables. 3-Methylthio-1-propanol (3-MP) is a naturally occurring food-borne sulfide, which is mainly used to increase the flavor in food. However, the potential application of 3-MP in the postharvest phase to manage fruit fungal diseases has not been explored. In this study, the antifungal activity of 3-MP against B. cinerea was evaluated, and the possible mechanism involved was explored. In vitro 3-MP treatment could effectively inhibit the mycelial growth, spore germination, and germ tube elongation of B. cinerea. 3-MP also impaired the spore viability and membrane integrity of B. cinerea as well as increased the leakage of nucleic acids, proteins, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in B. cinerea. In vivo 3-MP fumigation treatment inhibited the infection of B. cinerea on tomato fruits. Also, the fruits with 3-MP fumigation treatment exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity, lower MDA content, and a significant delay of induction of the expression of most of the stress-related genes when compared to the control group. Moreover, a cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that 3-MP had no toxicity to normal cells in a certain concentration range. Collectively, our research results will provide evidence for the development of food-borne sulfide 3-MP as a fungicide in food and agriculture and will provide an important reference for the formulation of B. cinerea biocontrol strategies.


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