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Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elham A AlQudari ◽  
Lulwah I Alabdan ◽  
Abdulla A Alkhathami ◽  
Mohammed D Alotaibi ◽  
Hanan A Alhamzi

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Author(s):  
Charlotte Girard-Guyonvarc’h ◽  
Mathilde Harel ◽  
Cem Gabay

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family, whose activity is tightly controlled at the level of production, as well as signalization. Notably, it is buffered by its natural inhibitor, IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP), which is massively present in circulation in normal and in most pathological conditions, thus preventing harmful pro-inflammatory systemic effects of IL-18. IL-18 has long been considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory diseases. However, a first clinical trial using recombinant IL-18BP for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis gave disappointing results. Direct measurements of unbound, bioactive, free form of circulating IL-18 demonstrated that IL-18 was more specifically involved in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) but also in their most severe complication, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). More importantly, administration of recombinant IL-18BP to patients with AOSD, and sJIA with MAS, showed promising results. This review summarizes available data regarding IL-18 and IL-18BP in AOSD and sJIA in mouse models and humans and shows the importance of IL-18/IL-18BP imbalance in these conditions, leading to the conclusion that IL-18, particularly free IL-18, may be a useful biomarker in these diseases and an interesting therapeutic target.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Helen C. Looker ◽  
Laura Pyle ◽  
Tim Vigers ◽  
Cameron Severn ◽  
Pierre Saulnier ◽  
...  

<b>Objective: </b>Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading cause of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Recent studies suggest a more aggressive clinical course of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in youth-onset than adult-onset T2D. We compared kidney structural lesions in youth- and adult-onset T2D to determine if youth-onset was associated with greater early tissue injury.<b></b> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Methods: </b>Quantitative microscopy was performed on kidney tissue obtained from research kidney biopsies in 161 Pima Indians (117 women, 44 men) with T2D. Onset of T2D was established by serial oral glucose tolerance testing and participants were stratified as youth-onset (<25 years) or adult-onset (≥25 years). Associations between clinical and morphometric parameters and age of onset were tested using linear models.<b></b></p> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Results: </b>At biopsy, the 52 participants with youth-onset T2D were younger than the 109 with adult-onset T2D (39.1±9.9 <i>vs.</i> 51.4±10.2 years, <i>p</i><0.0001), but their diabetes duration was similar (19.3±8.1 <i>vs.</i> 17.0±7.8 years, <i>p</i>=0.09). Median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was higher in the youth-onset group (58 [25<sup>th</sup>-75<sup>th</sup> percentile, 17-470] <i>vs.</i> 27 [13-73] mg/g, <i>p</i>=0.02). Youth-onset participants had greater glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width (552±128 nm <i>vs.</i> 490±114nm, <i>p</i>=0.002) and mesangial fractional volume (0.31±0.10 <i>vs</i>. 0.27±0.08, <i>p</i>=0.001) than adult-onset participants. Percentage glomerular sclerosis, glomerular volume, mesangial fractional volume, and GBM width were also inversely associated with age of diabetes onset as a continuous variable.<b></b></p> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Conclusion: </b>Younger age of T2D onset strongly associates with more severe kidney structural lesions. Studies are underway to elucidate the pathways underlying these associations.</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Helen C. Looker ◽  
Laura Pyle ◽  
Tim Vigers ◽  
Cameron Severn ◽  
Pierre Saulnier ◽  
...  

<b>Objective: </b>Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading cause of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Recent studies suggest a more aggressive clinical course of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in youth-onset than adult-onset T2D. We compared kidney structural lesions in youth- and adult-onset T2D to determine if youth-onset was associated with greater early tissue injury.<b></b> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Methods: </b>Quantitative microscopy was performed on kidney tissue obtained from research kidney biopsies in 161 Pima Indians (117 women, 44 men) with T2D. Onset of T2D was established by serial oral glucose tolerance testing and participants were stratified as youth-onset (<25 years) or adult-onset (≥25 years). Associations between clinical and morphometric parameters and age of onset were tested using linear models.<b></b></p> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Results: </b>At biopsy, the 52 participants with youth-onset T2D were younger than the 109 with adult-onset T2D (39.1±9.9 <i>vs.</i> 51.4±10.2 years, <i>p</i><0.0001), but their diabetes duration was similar (19.3±8.1 <i>vs.</i> 17.0±7.8 years, <i>p</i>=0.09). Median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was higher in the youth-onset group (58 [25<sup>th</sup>-75<sup>th</sup> percentile, 17-470] <i>vs.</i> 27 [13-73] mg/g, <i>p</i>=0.02). Youth-onset participants had greater glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width (552±128 nm <i>vs.</i> 490±114nm, <i>p</i>=0.002) and mesangial fractional volume (0.31±0.10 <i>vs</i>. 0.27±0.08, <i>p</i>=0.001) than adult-onset participants. Percentage glomerular sclerosis, glomerular volume, mesangial fractional volume, and GBM width were also inversely associated with age of diabetes onset as a continuous variable.<b></b></p> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Conclusion: </b>Younger age of T2D onset strongly associates with more severe kidney structural lesions. Studies are underway to elucidate the pathways underlying these associations.</p>


Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Iram Shad ◽  
Muhammad Shafique ◽  
Syeda A Waris ◽  
Farwa Shabbir ◽  
Attiya Begum

Diabetes Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Helen C. Looker ◽  
Laura Pyle ◽  
Tim Vigers ◽  
Cameron Severn ◽  
Pierre J. Saulnier ◽  
...  

OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Recent studies suggest a more aggressive clinical course of diabetic kidney disease in youth-onset compared with adult-onset T2D. We compared kidney structural lesions in youth- and adult-onset T2D to determine if youth onset was associated with greater early tissue injury. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Quantitative microscopy was performed on kidney tissue obtained from research kidney biopsies in 161 Pima Indians (117 women, 44 men) with T2D. Onset of T2D was established by serial oral glucose tolerance testing, and participants were stratified as youth onset (age &lt;25 years) or adult onset (age ≥25 years). Associations between clinical and morphometric parameters and age at onset were tested using linear models. RESULTS At biopsy, the 52 participants with youth-onset T2D were younger than the 109 with adult-onset T2D (39.1 ± 9.9 vs. 51.4 ± 10.2 years; P &lt; 0.0001), but their diabetes duration was similar (19.3 ± 8.1 vs. 17.0 ± 7.8 years; P = 0.09). Median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was higher in the youth-onset group (58 [25th–75th percentile 17–470] vs. 27 [13–73] mg/g; P = 0.02). Youth-onset participants had greater glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width (552 ± 128 vs. 490 ± 114 nm; P = 0.002) and mesangial fractional volume (0.31 ± 0.10 vs. 0.27 ± 0.08; P = 0.001) than adult-onset participants. Glomerular sclerosis percentage, glomerular volume, mesangial fractional volume, and GBM width were also inversely associated with age at diabetes onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS Younger age at T2D onset strongly associates with more severe kidney structural lesions. Studies are underway to elucidate the pathways underlying these associations.


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