Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction, often associated with other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis present an increased prevalence of myasthenia gravis compared to the general population. While these two diseases share some therapeutic options, such as glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab, there are no guidelines for treating concomitant disease. We aim to review the available evidence and to discuss the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic options in patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myasthenia gravis.
We described three patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myasthenia gravis and we performed a systematic review of the associated literature.
A 48-year-old man and two women (48 and 55 years old) with concomitant diagnoses of active rheumatoid arthritis and well-controlled myasthenia gravis are described. They were treated with methotrexate, leflunomide, upadacitinib, and adalimumab. None of them experienced changes in their myasthenic symptoms. We found 9 additional cases from our literature review. Methotrexate, rituximab, upadacitinib, diphenyl sulfone, auranofin, and loxoprofen sodium did not show an impact on the seven patients with previously well-controlled myasthenia. Glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab proved effective in active myasthenia gravis and arthritis. Conflicting data emerged for Tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors.
Although the available evidence remains scarce, we consider glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab as safe and effective options. The role of tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors remains uncertain. Eventually, Janus Kinase inhibitors are a novel interesting option for these patients.
Key Points• To date, the only evidence on the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and concomitant myasthenia gravis derives from case reports.• Based on the review of the available case reports and on the cases we described, we consider glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab as safe and effective options, while the role of Tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors remains uncertain.• Based on the cases we described, Janus Kinase inhibitors are a novel interesting option for patients with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis.
OTU deubiquitinase 7A (OTUD7A) can suppress inflammation signaling pathways, but it is unclear whether the gene can inhibit inflammation in goose fatty liver. In order to investigate the functions of OTUD7A and identify the genes and pathways subjected to the regulation of OTUD7A in the formation of goose fatty liver, we conducted transcriptomic analysis of cells, which revealed several genes related to inflammation and immunity that were significantly differentially expressed after OTUD7A overexpression. Moreover, the expression of interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5), tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 8 (TNFSF8), sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein 9 (SAMD9), radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein 2 (RSAD2), interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1 (MX1), and interferon-induced guanylate binding protein 1-like (GBP1) was inhibited by OTUD7A overexpression but induced by OTUD7A knockdown with small interfering RNA in goose hepatocytes. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IFIT5, TNFSF8, SAMD9, RSAD2, MX1, and GBP1 was downregulated, whereas OTUD7A expression was upregulated in goose fatty liver after 12 days of overfeeding. In contrast, the expression patterns of these genes showed nearly the opposite trend after 24 days of overfeeding. Taken together, these findings indicate that OTUD7A regulates the expression of inflammation- and immune-related genes in the development of goose fatty liver.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination is considered the core approach to containing the pandemic. There is currently insufficient evidence on the efficacy of these vaccines in immunosuppressed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the humoral response in immunosuppressed IBD patients after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. In this prospective study, IgG antibody levels (AB) against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (spike-protein) were quantitatively determined. For assessing the potential neutralizing capacity, a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate neutralization test (sVNT) was employed in IBD patients (n = 95) and healthy controls (n = 38). Sera were examined prior to the first/second vaccination and 3/6 months after second vaccination. Patients showed lower sVNT (%) and IgG-S (AU/mL) AB both before the second vaccination (sVNT p < 0.001; AB p < 0.001) and 3 (sVNT p = 0.002; AB p = 0.001) and 6 months (sVNT p = 0.062; AB p = 0.061) after the second vaccination. Although seroconversion rates (sVNT, IgG-S) did not differ between the two groups 3 months after second vaccination, a significant difference was seen 6 months after second vaccination (sVNT p = 0.045). Before and three months after the second vaccination, patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents showed significantly lower AB than healthy subjects. In conclusion, an early booster shot vaccination should be discussed for IBD patients on anti-TNF therapy.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family has nine ligands that show promiscuity in binding multiple receptors. As different receptors transduce into diverse pathways, the study on the functional role of natural ligands is very complex. In this review, we discuss the TNF ligands engineering for receptor specificity and summarize the performance of the ligand variants in vivo and in vitro. Those variants have an increased binding affinity to specific receptors to enhance the cell signal conduction and have reduced side effects due to a lowered binding to untargeted receptors. Refining receptor specificity is a promising research strategy for improving the application of multi-receptor ligands. Further, the settled variants also provide experimental guidance for engineering receptor specificity on other proteins with multiple receptors.
Abstract. Objectives: To determine whether SNPs of osteoarthritis (OA)-related genes predict the effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) extract in OA patients with OA. Subjects/methods: To analyze correlations between CZ extract effects in humans and their genotypes, 121 Korean patients with OA were recruited. Patients ingested 600 mg/day of the CZ extract GCWB106 (one tablet daily), including 250-mg CZ, or placebo (one tablet daily) for 12 weeks. Twenty SNPs were genotyped in 11 genes associated with OA pathogenesis, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and 9 genes involved in OA-related dietary intervention. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (K-WOMAC) were measured as indicators of GCWB106 effect. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify associations between these scales and genotyped loci in patients with OA. Results: Three SNPs ( PPARG rs3856806, MMP13 rs2252070, and ZIP2 rs2234632) were significantly associated with the degree of change in VAS pain score. Homozygous CC genotype carriers of rs3856806, G allele carriers (GA or GG) of rs2252070, and T allele carriers (GT or TT) of rs2234632 showed lower VAS score (i.e., less severe symptoms) in the GCWB106 group (n=53) than the placebo group (n=57) (p=0.026, p=0.009, and p=0.025, respectively). Gene–gene interaction effects on GCWB106-mediated pain relief were then examined, and it was found that the addition of each genotype resulted in a greater decrease in VAS pain score in the GCWB106 group (p=0.0024) but not the placebo group (p=0.7734). Conclusions: These novel predictive markers for the pain-relieving effects of GCWB106 may be used in the personalized treatment of patients with OA.