biological control
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
I. Ullah ◽  
M. Ali ◽  
F. Maula ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  

Abstract Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
J. R. Souza ◽  
C. G. Silva ◽  
J. A. F. Barrigossi ◽  
J. B. Matos Junior ◽  
D. P. Conceição ◽  

Abstract The life cycle of stink bug, Glyphepomis dubia and the development of two egg parasitoids (Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis) were studied at the Federal University of Maranhão, at 26 ± 2oC, relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 10% and 12h photophase. Individuals used in the study were collected from seven rice fields located around the municipality of Arari, Maranhão, Brazil, and maintained in greenhouse and laboratory for the life cycle studies. From egg to adult, G. dubia took 35.2 days to complete the life cycle. The oviposition period was 37 days, with egg masses of about 12 eggs each and viability of 93.1%. Longevity was 53 and 65 days for females and males, respectively. The egg parasitoids Te. podisi and Tr. basalis parasitized and developed in G. dubia eggs; however, the biological characteristics of Tr. basalis were affected. Emergence of the parasitoids was higher for Te. podisi (83.5%) compared to the records for Tr. basalis (50.4%). Therefore, G. dubia may potentially achieve a pest status and Te. podisi is a promising biological control agent for G. dubia management in Brazil due to its higher longevity and better reproductive parameters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 170 ◽  
pp. 104293
Gaetano Guida ◽  
Raimondo Gaglio ◽  
Alessandro Miceli ◽  
Vito Armando Laudicina ◽  
Luca Settanni

2022 ◽  
Vol 170 ◽  
pp. 104230
Hongmei Li ◽  
Ruey Toh ◽  
Yanli Wei ◽  
Yilian Wang ◽  
Jindong Hu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Yelitza Coromoto Colmenarez ◽  
Dirk Babendreier ◽  
Francisco Ramón Ferrer Wurst ◽  
Carlos Luis Vásquez-Freytez ◽  
Adeney de Freitas Bueno

AbstractSpodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), also known as fall armyworm (FAW) is a polyphagous pest which can cause significant losses and is considered a global threat to different crops and a risk to food security. Currently, in maize, the pest is predominantly controlled by pesticides or transgenic events. However, the use of biological control agents is considered the most sustainable and preferred method of control, providing high effectiveness. Among the various natural enemies reported for FAW, the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus has gained most interest, and has been mass released against FAW in the Americas for many years. In addition to FAW, other armyworms of the genus Spodoptera often cause high crop damage and may be controlled using T. remus. Among other important aspects, this paper presents a review on T. remus mass rearing techniques, estimated costs of mass production, and release strategies. Due to the recent invasion of FAW in Africa, Asia, and Australia T. remus provides good opportunities for the establishment of an augmentative biological control program, reinforcing sustainable production of major crops such as maize in affected countries.

2022 ◽  
Kévin Tougeron ◽  
Louise Ferrais ◽  
Pauline Gardin ◽  
Marc Lateur ◽  
Thierry Hance

Mass releases of two parasitoid species, Aphidius matricariae and Ephedrus cerasicola, may provide an alternative measure to pesticides to control the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea in organic apple orchards. As a proof of concept study, we tested if the presence of flower strips between apple tree rows could improve the action of three early parasitoid releases—and of other naturally present aphid enemies—on the control of aphid colonies and number of aphids per tree. Apple trees located at different distances from parasitoid release points were monitored in plots with and without flower strips in an organic apple orchard over two years, along the season of aphid infestation (March to July). Our case study demonstrated that the presence of flowering plant mixes in the alleyways of an apple orchard improved the biological control of D. plantaginea, with an effect size of 33.4% less aphids in plots with flower strips, compared to plots without flower strips, at the infestation peak date. We also showed a negative effect of higher distance to parasitoid release points on aphid control, but our results at the infestation peak date suggest that the presence of flowers could marginally compensate for the detrimental effect of distance, probably by improving the persistence and dispersal capacities of natural enemies. Despite high variations in aphid population dynamics between years, we conclude that combining flower strips with early parasitoid releases in apple orchards is promising for biological control of the rosy apple aphid, although the method merits to be further refined and repeated in more orchards.

BioEssays ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 2100224
Mariana Pavel ◽  
Radu Tanasa ◽  
So Jung Park ◽  
David C. Rubinsztein

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