biological control agent
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. C. Pacheco ◽  
D. D. Silva ◽  
S. M. Mendes ◽  
K. P. Lima ◽  
J. E. F. Figueiredo ◽  
...  

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. R. Souza ◽  
C. G. Silva ◽  
J. A. F. Barrigossi ◽  
J. B. Matos Junior ◽  
D. P. Conceição ◽  
...  

Abstract The life cycle of stink bug, Glyphepomis dubia and the development of two egg parasitoids (Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis) were studied at the Federal University of Maranhão, at 26 ± 2oC, relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 10% and 12h photophase. Individuals used in the study were collected from seven rice fields located around the municipality of Arari, Maranhão, Brazil, and maintained in greenhouse and laboratory for the life cycle studies. From egg to adult, G. dubia took 35.2 days to complete the life cycle. The oviposition period was 37 days, with egg masses of about 12 eggs each and viability of 93.1%. Longevity was 53 and 65 days for females and males, respectively. The egg parasitoids Te. podisi and Tr. basalis parasitized and developed in G. dubia eggs; however, the biological characteristics of Tr. basalis were affected. Emergence of the parasitoids was higher for Te. podisi (83.5%) compared to the records for Tr. basalis (50.4%). Therefore, G. dubia may potentially achieve a pest status and Te. podisi is a promising biological control agent for G. dubia management in Brazil due to its higher longevity and better reproductive parameters.


2022 ◽  
Vol 170 ◽  
pp. 104230
Author(s):  
Hongmei Li ◽  
Ruey Toh ◽  
Yanli Wei ◽  
Yilian Wang ◽  
Jindong Hu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Louise van Oudenhove ◽  
Aurelie Cazier ◽  
Marine Fillaud ◽  
Anne-Violette Lavoir ◽  
Hicham Fatnassi ◽  
...  

Essential oils (EOs) are increasingly used as biopesticides due to their insecticidal potential. This study addresses their non-target effects on a biological control agent: the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens. In particular, we tested whether EOs affected parasitoid fitness either directly, by decreasing pre-imaginal survival, or indirectly, by disrupting parasitoids' orientation abilities. The effect of Anise, Fennel, Sweet orange, Basil, Coriander, Oregano, Peppermint, Mugwort, Rosemary and Thyme EOs were studied on five strains of T. evanescens. Specific experimental setups were developed, and data obtained from image analysis were interpreted with phenomenological models fitted with Bayesian inference. Results highlight the fumigant toxicity of EOs on parasitoid development. Anise, Fennel, Basil, Coriander, Oregano, Peppermint and Thyme EOs are particularly toxic and drastically reduce the emergence rate of T. evanescens. Most EOs also affect parasitoid behavior: (i) Basil, Coriander, Oregano, Peppermint, Mugwort and Thyme EOs are highly repellent for naive female parasitoids; (ii) Anise and Fennel EOs can have repellent to attractive effects depending on strains; and (iii) Sweet orange, Oregano and Rosemary EOs have no detectable impact on orientation behavior. This study shows that EOs fumigation have non-target effects on egg parasitoids. This highlights the need to cautiously precise the deployment framework of biopesticides in an agroecological perspective.


Author(s):  
Lucie Marquereau ◽  
Jean-Sébastien Cottineau ◽  
Olivier Fontaine ◽  
Frédéric Chiroleu ◽  
Bernard Reynaud ◽  
...  

Abstract Whiteflies are one of the major pests of tomato under greenhouses, and their control partly relies on biocontrol strategies. Among those biocontrol agents, parasitoids or predators are widely used. However, the introduction of a biocontrol agent in a new area is not trivial. For that reason, we investigated the use of a tropical native mirid, Nesidiocoris volucer (Hemiptera: Miridae), for the biological control of whiteflies among other insect pests on tomato crops under greenhouses in the subtropical island of La Réunion, France. Nesidiocoris volucer life history traits and plant injury were examined. Nymphs developed and survived between 15 and 30°C and required on average 49.41 days at 15°C and on average 10.50 days at 30°C to develop (nymph survival >94%). At 25°C, each female produced on average 65 eggs. Nesidiocoris volucer was able to feed on several prey species, but performed better on whiteflies than on spider mites or thrips. No N. volucer feeding injury was observed on tomato. Nesidiocoris volucer has also been found in tropical countries of Africa, and we believe that the data presented on this natural enemy could be of great importance for the biocontrol of whiteflies in tropical areas.


Author(s):  
Xiao-Bo Li ◽  
Rui Zhu ◽  
Tian-Ci Yi ◽  
Jian-Jun Guo ◽  
Dao-Chao Jin

The ability to endure starvation is important for predatory mite survival and its effectiveness as biological control agent. We studied the longevity and functional response of the prodator mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregaor) under starvation stress. N. californicus individuals were treated as three groups: the mites were provided with nothing (group I), with fresh bean leaves (group II), and with water (group III) to the larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, adult males and females. Functional response of N. californicus to Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs was evaluated after starvation for 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Results showed that all life stages of N. californicus in group III had the longest survival time among the three groups. Adult females had the strongest ability to endure starvation with a mean survival time of 8.16 d. Females had the ability to lay eggs, but the number of eggs laid was less than a mean of 1.2 eggs per female in the three starvation groups. N. californicus exhibited a Holling’s Type II functional response at all hunger levels. The handling time (Th) and attack rate (α) of the predator were not significantly different in all hunger levels. Predation rate of starved 0 h to 72 h initially increased and then decreased. The highest predation rate was recorded when the predators were starved for 24 h.


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Author(s):  
Hye-Jeong Jun ◽  
Kyoung-Su Kim ◽  
Eun-Hye Ham

This study presented biological and economic data for the mass-rearing of Orius minutus in Korea. Simplifying the mass-rearing process through an alternative diet and an artificial oviposition substrate is a prerequisite for enhancing the usability of this insect as a biological control agent. We compare the hatch rate of O. minutus eggs deposited on a plant substrate with that of eggs deposited on two artificial substrates, cork sheets and rubber. The results indicate that cork sheet is the most cost-effective artificial oviposition substrate for the mass-rearing of O. minutus. We also examine five feeding treatments that included two types of brine shrimp eggs and eggs of Ephestia cautella to compare the number of eggs laid in the fifth generation. We found no significant difference between the two treatment groups; 61.3 eggs were laid in the treatment group fed iron-coated brine shrimp and moth eggs, and 67.4 eggs were laid in the control group. The plant-free model developed in our study can reduce rearing costs by 70.5% compared to the conventional mass-rearing model.


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 65
Author(s):  
Emily C. Kraus ◽  
Rosemary Murray ◽  
Cassandra Kelm ◽  
Ryan Poffenberger ◽  
Eric Rohrig ◽  
...  

The air potato beetle, Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), is a successful biological control agent of the air potato vine, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreales: Dioscoreaceae), in the southern United States. Lilioceris cheni is currently being mass-reared by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry (FDACS-DPI) for biological control releases and research. The facility rears and releases over 50,000 adult beetles annually at approximately 1000 different locations. In addition to data on beetle production and distribution, studies on alternative larval and adult diets are described. Adults fed bulbils as the sole food source had reduced life spans compared with beetles given fresh air potato leaves. Adults survived without air potato leaves or bulbils for several days to two weeks depending on availability of leaves at emergence. Larvae did not survive on a modified artificial Colorado potato beetle diet containing fresh air potato vine leaves. Adults survived while consuming artificial diet but ceased oviposition. They, however, resumed egg laying less than one week after being returned to a diet of fresh air potato vine leaves.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Amany M. Abd El Azim

Abstract Background Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are promising alternatives since they have many characteristics as a biological control agent against insect pests. Results Among indigenous EPN isolated, adapted to local environmental conditions by employing the Galleria baiting strategy, only one sample was positive for the presence of EPNs. The new isolate was identified at the species level using DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region and the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search of GenBank showed that the isolate had a high similarity (99%) with that sequence available for Heterorhabditis taysearae. The pathogenicity of the EPN isolate was tested against the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using different concentrations (60, 90, 120 and 150 IJs/larvae). Data showed that 150 IJs/larvae caused 100% mortality rate, followed by 120 IJs/larvae (90%), while 60 IJs/larvae showed the lowest rate (60%) after 72 h. Conclusions The present study indicated that the native isolate of EPN could be recommended against S. littoralis as an efficient tool in its control programs.


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