Relative Humidity
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Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-77
B. Salisu ◽  
S.M. Anua ◽  
W.R. Wan Ishak ◽  
N. Mazlan

The warm weather and high relative humidity in Malaysia are ideal for the survival and proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi leading to a high rate of stored product contamination. This study was conducted to enumerate and characterise the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with commonly consumed food grains in Kelantan, Malaysia. The fungal bioburden and fungal identification from forty-four composite food samples comprising 11 samples each of maize, wheat, rice, and peanuts from open markets in Kelantan, Malaysia, were determined using standard mycological techniques. A total of 115 mould fungal isolates belonging to 12 species were isolated, of which Aspergillus flavus (17.39%), A. versicolor (13.04%), A. felis (12.17%), Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (11.3%), Penicillium cheresanum (11.3%) and P. chrysogenum (8.7%), were predominant. Peanuts were the most contaminated (9.7×105 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g) followed by maize (7.5×105 ± 1.8×106 CFU/g), wheat (1.9×105 ± 2.6×105 CFU/g), and rice (9.9×104 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g). The levels of the mycotoxigenic fungi in peanut, maize, and wheat were above the permissible limit of 102 CFU/g set by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and 102 to 105 CFU/g set by the International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods, signifying that they are unsafe for use as food or feed ingredients. Hence, there is a need for more stringent control measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 151-160

. The climatology of the cold-point tropopause (CPT) and tropopause characteristics in a subtropical area like The Arabian Peninsula is examined using the radiosonde data of the CPT characteristics and NCEP Reanalysis data of the tropopause characteristics. The monthly mean data for January and July are analyzed for three stations, namely Medina, Tabuk and Dammam in Saudi Arabia. The trends of CPT and tropopause characteristics of pressure, height, temperature, temperature anomalies, relative humidity, wind speed and potential temperature are also analyzed.  The trends of these characteristics show that they experienced a sharp change during the 1990s and a significant change for the period from 2000 to 2016. For the whole period of study, the month of July, CPT and tropopause pressure decreased for about 5 hPa, whereas the height increased for more than 100 m. The temperature experienced a sudden drop during the beginning of the 1990s and a smooth decrease during the following years in January. Furthermore, a strong correlation is found between the CPT temperature and the Solar Cycle during the ‘90s period then it decreased sharply after this period.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-172

Field experiments were conducted on the research farm of IARI, New Delhi during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18. Three varieties of wheat (PBW-723, HD-2967 and HD-3086) were sown on three different dates for generating different weather condition during various phenological stages of crop. Results showed that during early crop growth stages soil moisture had higher value and soil temperature had lower value and with progress of crop growth stage, the moisture in the upper layer decreased and soil temperature increased significantly as compared to the bottom layers. During tillering and jointing stage, air temperature within canopy was more and relative humidity was less while during flowering and grain filling stage, air temperature within canopy was less and relative humidity was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop. Radiation use efficiency and relative leaf water content had significantly higher value while leaf water potential had lower value in timely sown crop followed by late and very late sown crop. Yield had higher value in HD-3086 followed by HD-2967 and PBW-723 in all weather conditions. Canopy air temperature difference had positive value in very late sown crop particularly during flowering and grain-filling stages. This reflects in the yield. Yield was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 173-180
M.J. SINGH ◽  

This paper aims to study the long-term trends in different weather parameters, i.e., temperature, rainfall, rainy days, sunshine hours, evaporation, relative humidity and temperature over Lower Shivalik foothills of Punjab. The daily weather data of about 35 years from agrometeorological observatory of Regional Research Station Ballowal Saunkhri representing Lower Shivalik foothills had been used for trend analysis for kharif (May - October), rabi (November - April), winter (January - February), pre-monsoon (March - May), monsoon (June - September) and post monsoon (October - December) season. The linear regression method has been used to estimate the magnitude of change per year and its coefficient of determination, whose statistical significance was checked by the F test. The annual maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity has increased whereas rainfall, evaporation sunshine hours and wind speed has decreased significantly at this region. No significant change in annual minimum temperature and diurnal range has been observed. Monthly maximum temperature revealed significant increase except January, June and December, whereas, monthly minimum temperature increased significantly for February, March and October and decreased for June. Among different seasons, maximum temperature increased significantly for all seasons except winter season, whereas, minimum temperature increased significantly for kharif and post monsoon season only. The evaporation, sunshine hours and wind speed have also decreased and relative humidity decreased significantly at this region. Significant reduction in kharif, monsoon and post monsoon rainfall has been observed at Lower Shivalik foothills. As the region lacks assured irrigation facilities so decreasing rainfall and change in the other weather parameters will have profound effects on the agriculture in this region so there is need to develop climate resilient agricultural technologies.

Ho Hyun Wang ◽  
Jonghyeong Park ◽  
Haemin Kim ◽  
Nanjun Chen ◽  

Abstract We systematically study anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) based on poly(aryl-co-aryl piperidinium) (c-PAP) copolymers and provide a scalable scenario for high-performance AEMFCs, covering the optimization of the relative humidity (RH), catalyst species, catalyst interfaces, and hydrophobic treatment. Specifically, high-water-permeable c-PAP ionomers in the presence of moderate relative humidity (RH) (75%/100%) can be used to address anode flooding and cathode dry-out issues. The composition of the catalyst layer and the anode hydrophobic treatment significantly impact the power density of AEMFCs. c-PAP-based AEMFCs with optimum catalyst composition achieve a peak power density (PPD) of 2.70 W cm-2 at 80 oC in H2-O2 after hydrophobic treatment. Pt1Co1/C cathode-based AEMFCs reach a PPD of 1.80 W cm-2 along with an outstanding specific power of 13.87 W mg-1. Moreover, these AEMFCs can be operated under a 0.2 A cm-2 current density at 60 oC for over 300 h with a voltage decay rate of ~300 μv h-1.

Amreen Bashir ◽  
Peter A. Lambert ◽  
Yvonne Stedman ◽  
Anthony C. Hilton

The survival on stainless steel of ten Salmonella isolates from food factory, clinical and veterinary sources was investigated. Stainless steel coupons inoculated with Salmonella were dried and stored at a range of temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels representing factory conditions. Viability was determined from 1 to 22 days. Survival curves obtained for most isolates and storage conditions displayed exponential inactivation described by a log-linear model. Survival was affected by environmental temperatures and RH with decimal reduction times (DRTs) ranging from <1 day to 18 days. At 25 °C/15% RH, all isolates survived at levels of 103 to 105 cfu for >22 days. Furthermore, temperatures and RH independently influenced survival on stainless steel; increasing temperatures between 10 °C and 37 °C and increasing RH levels from 30–70% both decreased the DRT values. Survival curves displaying a shoulder followed by exponential death were obtained for three isolates at 10 °C/70% RH. Inactivation kinetics for these were described by modified Weibull models, suggesting that cumulative injury occurs before cellular inactivation. This study highlights the need to control temperature and RH to limit microbial persistence in the food manufacturing environment, particularly during the factory shut-down period for cleaning when higher temperature/humidity levels could be introduced.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-44
Y. E. A. RAJ ◽  

Several sea breeze parameters such as time of onset, withdrawal, duration, depth, variation with height, direction etc.  have been derived and studied for Chennai city and Chennai AP observatories in this study, which has been based on a large  data base for the period March-October,1969-83. The monthly and sub monthly values of several sea breeze parameters have been derived. By invoking the concept of superposed epoch analysis the important role played by sea breeze in modulating diurnal variation of surface temperature and relative humidity has been established. The sea breeze at Chennai has been shown to be shallow with a depth of under 1 km. Modal directions of sea breeze and its normal speed have been  derived.

2022 ◽  
Alexander A. Shevtsov ◽  
Alexey V. Drannikov ◽  
Alexander V. Vostroilov ◽  
Elena E. Kurchaeva ◽  
Anna A. Derkanosova ◽  

This research presented the pellet feed production line. Three pellet feed formulasfor young stock rabbits (28-135 days old) were developed with the addition of experimental dietary supplements grouped into the following protein green complexes (PGC):PGC-92-1including thе following supplements- dried herbal pulp from red clover, herbal alfalfa meal, and Sporotherminprobiotic; PGC-92-2 including the following supplements - protein feed concentrate from wheat stillage filtrate (syrup), herbal alfalfa meal, and Sporothermin probiotic; PGC-92-3 including the following supplements – PGC from red clover, herbal alfalfa meal,andSporothermin probiotic. These were compared with feed formulated without dietary supplements (PGC-92 (Control)). The nutritional value of the concentrate feeds met the requirements assigned for this group of animals. The storage of the formulatedconcentrate feeds took place in industrial conditions (the floor store) in paper bags of 30 kg per group at the temperature of 18-20 ∘C and the relative humidity of 65-70%. Due to itsmoisture content exceeding the standard requirements, the check concentrate feed (Control) revealed a higher content of fungal and bacterial microflora. The fat acidityvalue and the total acidity increased, which indicated the instability of this batch of concentrate feed during storage. The experimental batches of concentrate feed had a stablequality and retained good quality throughout the testing period. The testing of the effects of the studied complexes in fattening young stock rabbits was carried out on the premises of the Lipetsk Rabbit LLC industrial complex with 2000 rabbits. The use ofall-in-onepellet feedsformulated with the addition ofdietary supplements made it possible to increase the slaughter yield by 3.62%, 4.45% and 3.96%, while reducing feed intake per 1 kg of slaughter mass by 0.72 ECU, 0.38 ECU and 0.88 ECU. There was an increase in profit of 17725.25rubles, 16114.38 rubles and 14168.55 rubles, and an increase in the level of profitability by 45.93%, 41.26% and 31.24%, which resulted from a highersafety andgrowth performance of the raised rabbits. Keywords: concentrate feeds, pellet feeds, dietary supplements, protein green complex, feed for rabbits, growth performance

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