Relative Humidity
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2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (3) ◽  
pp. 5-10

The paper presents materials on the water deficiency of leaves in the balsamic poplar in the conditions of polymetallic contamination of the Sterlitamak industrial center. The object of the research was poplar plantations located at different distances from the industrial enterprises of Sterlitamak. As a result, it was revealed that in the conditions of polymetallic contamination of the Sterlitamak industrial center at noon, with an increase in temperature and a decrease in relative humidity, the moisture consumption increases in the balsamic poplar. The maximum water deficit in the daytime is from 13 to 15 hours. In trees in conditions of polymetallic contamination of the SPC, the water consumption during the night hours is not covered by its intake, so the next day the morning hours began with some water shortage. As a result of the conducted studies, it was found that in the conditions of polymetallic pollution of the Sterlitamak industrial center, with the deterioration of the living condition and with a decrease in the proportion of absorbing roots of the balsamic poplar, significant changes in water deficit indicators are noted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 131 ◽  
pp. 108222
Xia Wu ◽  
Peijuan Wang ◽  
Yuping Ma ◽  
Yanduo Gong ◽  
Dingrong Wu ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1888
Toky Ramananjatovo ◽  
Etienne Chantoiseau ◽  
Pascale Guillermin ◽  
René Guénon ◽  
Mickaël Delaire ◽  

Garden-orchard systems (GOS) consist in intercropping various vegetables with fruit trees. They are very promising to produce fruits and vegetables in sufficient quantity and of adequate quality while limiting environmental impacts. We assessed the effects of apple trees on the spatiotemporal variations of microclimatic conditions and soil properties, and their influence on the growth of two vegetables (radish and lettuce). We performed measurements on five vegetable beds situated at different distances from apple tree rows (from 1.5 to 5 m). Vegetable beds near the apple trees received on average 8% less radiation. Air temperature near the trees was on average 1.5 °C lower during daytime while air relative humidity was up to 5% higher. Apple trees improved the soil surface properties. Soil organic matter was up to 40% higher in the vegetable beds near the rows whereas soil bulk density was 16% lower, N mineralization was up to two times faster. Mineral N and bulk density were the primary limiting factors for the growth of radish while lettuce growth was mainly affected by microclimate. Our results provide a framework to define a spatial arrangement of GOS that optimize the ecosystem services of fruit trees and, therefore, the productivity of GOS.

W. Tollenaar ◽  
L. Joosten ◽  
E. Schmitt

Research on the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.) Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is steadily increasing, with a focus on its larvae and applications thereof. The egg stage of this species has received less research. This study describes the phases of embryo development for BSF eggs and the potential of delaying embryo development by using a chilling protocol. The study found that when chilling eggs for 24 hours at 10 °C and 80% relative humidity, the development is paused for a full day. This study presents a window of opportunity for embryo ages, approximately 38-58 hours post oviposition, where the hatch success is the least affected (>80% hatching when compared to control). Outside of this window, the hatch success decreases to 70% and lower. The description of embryo development can be used as a reference tool for quality control purposes. The effect of treatments on eggs can be determined by identifying key processes in development. Furthermore, the chilling of embryos and thus pausing of development can be applied in a production setting.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1231
Antonio Valenzuela Gutierrez

Levitation of single trapped particles enables the exploration of fundamental physicochemical aerosol properties never previously achieved. Experimental measurements showed that (NH4)2SO4’s particle shape deviated from sphericity during the crystallization process. Despite that, salt aerosols are assumed to be spheres even in low relative humidity (RH) in most climate models. In the analysis performed here, Mie and T-Matrix codes were operated to simulate crucial parameters needed to estimate the radiative forcing efficiency: extinction efficiency, asymmetry parameter and backscattering fraction. The incorporation of non-spherical effects in (NH4)2SO4 particles can cause a difference of up to 46% radiative forcing efficiency compared to the assumption of sphericity in the 0.3–0.6 µm particle radius range.

2021 ◽  
Vol 02 ◽  
Magnus Christoffer Skov ◽  
Steffen Enggaard Kristensen ◽  
Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen

Background: This paper describes how environmentally relevant parameters affect titanium dioxide's photocatalytic properties (TiO2) to decompose ozone (O3). Methods: Thus, experiments have been carried out in a box chamber with TiO2 coated roofing membrane samples to determine the significance of light intensity, temperature, initial O3 concentration, and relative humidity. Furthermore, an outdoor experiment has been conducted where the roofing membrane was subjected to natural sunlight. Results: The results show a significant photocatalytic effect of TiO2. The half-life of the O3 decay curve is 5.8 min in near-ambient UV-light exposure compared with 7.1 min in dark conditions. Experiments conducted at higher light intensity show a more extensive degradation of O3, where the value of the reactive uptake coefficient increases from 0.044 to 0.051. Also, the measurements carried out under natural sunlight show a photocatalytic effect where the uptake coefficient value is 0.046. A larger photocatalytic effect is detected for the experiments conducted at 283 K and 303 K temperatures compared with experiments under standard conditions. Conclusion: Experiments carried out with a very high initial concentration of O3 show that 28.1 μg of O3 is decomposed than ambient conditions, where 2.3 μg is destroyed. This demonstrates that light intensity, temperature, ozone concentration, and relative humidity significantly impact TiO2's degradation of O3.

Florin Marcu ◽  
Nicolaie Hodor ◽  
Liliana Indrie ◽  
Paula Dejeu ◽  
Marin Ilieș ◽  

Monitoring the indoor microclimate in old buildings of cultural heritage and significance is a practice of great importance because of the importance of their identity for local communities and national consciousness. Most aged heritage buildings, especially those made of wood, develop an indoor microclimate conducive to the development of microorganisms. This study aims to analyze one wooden church dating back to the 1710s in Romania from the microclimatic perspective, i.e., temperature and relative humidity and the fungal load of the air and surfaces. One further aim was to determine if the internal microclimate of the monument is favorable for the health of parishioners and visitors, as well as for the integrity of the church itself. The research methodology involved monitoring of the microclimate for a period of nine weeks (November 2020–January 2021) and evaluating the fungal load in indoor air as well as on the surfaces. The results show a very high contamination of air and surfaces (>2000 CFU/m3). In terms of fungal contamination, Aspergillus spp. (two different species), Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp., Mucor spp., Penicillium spp. (two different species) and Trichopyton spp. were the genera of fungi identified in the indoor wooden church air and Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp. (two different species) and Botrytis spp. on the surfaces (church walls and iconostasis). The results obtained reveal that the internal microclimate not only imposes a potential risk factor for the parishioners and visitors, but also for the preservation of the wooden church as a historical monument, which is facing a crisis of biodeterioration of its artwork.

Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (5) ◽  
pp. 89-94
H. Kampawong ◽  
W. Utto ◽  
R. Pruthtikul

Active food package incorporating an ethanol vapour-controlled release sachet has been known for its efficacies to delay microbial proliferation in fresh fruit and vegetable. High humidity inside the package could be utilized as a stimulus for conditional releases as a means to stabilize the sachet prior to being used. The present research was undertaken to investigate the effects of relative humidity on ethanol vapour release from the hydrophilic film-based sachet. The prototype 4-side sealed sachets were made of either ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or laminated film comprising EVA and Nylon/PE (designated as ENP). A gas chromatogram equipped with a flame-ionized detector (FID-GC) was employed to analyze ethanol vapour concentration levels released from both sachet types and accumulated in headspaces of sealed glass beakers having different relative humidity (RH) levels. For a given RH level, the concentrations in the headspaces containing the ENPbased sachets were lower than those containing the EVA-based sachets. Delays of ethanol vapour release up to 24 h were observed in the ENP-based sachet system, whilst these did not occur among EVA-based sachets. Both sachets could release ethanol vapour with faster rates and subsequently higher concentrations accumulated at the very high relative humidity level (90-99% RH), compared to lower RH levels (60-89% RH). However, the release rates and concentration levels accumulated in 60-75% RH were not different from those in 80-89% RH. Extents of water vapour uptake by films were relatively small when the films were kept at the lower RH levels, but these became exponentially increased when the RH levels were ≥90%RH. Experimental data on water vapour uptakes were well predicted by an exponential model (R2 0.92-0.99; and root mean square of errors (RMSE) 0.004-0.054). Overall, experiment findings indicate that the ENP film caused delayed ethanol vapour releases from the sachet. The relative humidity levels had significant effects on the releases from hydrophilic film-based sachets

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